a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water
In physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain
The science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids and solids including vibration, sound, infrasound and ultrasound.
An _____should be involved with the design of a theatre so people are able hear
An ______ is involved with the recording, manipulation, mixing and reproduction of sound
speed of sound is affected by
what happens when we hear sound?
- drum is struck
- compression wave is generated
- travels until it hits receptor (ear)
- neurological impulse sent to the brain
Rate at which an object vibrates.
Measured in cycles per second
Measured in Hertz (Hz)
Humans hear between 20 and 20,000 Hertz
Tone produced by a vibrating body
The more vibrations or cycles per second the higher it is
Measurable quality of the power of sound. Expressed in DECIBELS
A person’s perception of sound intensity
Ratio comparing two sound levels Measurement of the sound waves in the air Hurt your hearing Measurement of the electronic signals that represent sound waves
Originally conceived as 1/10th of a Bell. (first unit for sound pressure)
The time it takes a sound to become inaudible.
who is on sound team
- Sound Designer
- A1- Production Sound Engineer
- A2- Mic Technician
- Head Sound Engineer
what does the sound designer do?
- Provide designs for
- Prerecorded music
- Sound effects
- REINFORCEMENT of live voices, musical instruments and sound elements.
- Creates drawings for sound related elements:
- Chooses audio technology that will be used in the show
- Set sound cues
A1-Production Sound Engineers
- Runs the sound console during the production
- Mixes all the electronic sound elements into a perfect blend
what does the a2- mic technician do?
- Handles all sound issues backstage
- Places mics, sets up mics, troubleshoots
- Might also sub-mix the orchestra
what does the head sound engineer do?
- Supervises the sound crew who installs the sound system
- Ensures the systems are function properly as designed
- Pre-show, Post-Show, Intermission
Include all electrical sound effects that the designer is responsible for creating, mixing, finding, etch
- Acquiring the music and sound effects
- Setting levels
- Writing cues with the design team
- Blend of Aural images into an overall elements
- Composing all the music and sound FX
- Blending the proper pitch, frequency, rhythm , tempo and loudness.
“Use of the sound system to amplify and process the voices of the actors, singers, orchestra, prerecorded music and sound effects”
TWO TASKS OF REINFORCEMENT
- Balance the loudness of the vocals, orchestra and scored sound so the actor can always be heard
- Strengthen the vocals of a weaker actor
What is a microphone?
A transducer that converts sound waves into a weak electrical signal.
what is a transducer?
A device that converts on form of energy into another.
how does a microphone work?
- weak signal sent to preamplifier
- boosts signal to line level
- sent to a power amp which boosts the signal to a level that will drive a speaker
Extremely thin strip of corrugated metal suspended between the poles of a magnet.
The air pressure of the sound waves vibrates the ribbon and induces an electronic current
The voltage mimics the frequency and intensity of the sound source.
Used for recording and sometimes in the orchestra pit.
The heart contains a magnet surrounded by a wire coil.
One end of the coil is attached to the microphone’s diaphragm.
When sound waves strike the diagram it vibrates which vibrates the coil.
An induced current is generated that mimics the frequency and intensity of the sound wave
Uses: onstage use and recording
Diaphragm of thin conductive materials forms one half of a capacitor.
When sound waves strike the diaphragm the pressure changes the space between the two plates. This causes a change in the capacitance of the condenser.
The movement changes the voltage in the plates.
The voltage change mimics the frequency and intensity generated by the source.Requires a power supply
an electrical component consisting of two metal plates separated and insulated from each other. Used to store an electrical charge
A method of supplying DC power through the microphone cable
visual pattern illustrating the intensity of a microphone’s output relative to the direction the sound arrives
microphone used for Speech and song. Picks up sound from the front and rejects a lot of sound from other directions
microphone that Transmits the audio as a radio or optical signal rather than via a cable
Small wireless mic to be worn on personal clothing, wigs, through the hair, etch
wireless lavalier microphone
microphone that will Pick up sound without by obstructive
Good when you want to hear the feet
How are scored sounds gathered?
- Live sources
- Sound effects libraries (CDs and some others)
- Online sound effects libraries
- Online sources (YouTube)
Sound sources are downloaded into a hard drive
Edited and created through Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software
Edit multi-track sound effects
Refine (trim, repeat, select)
Effects (reverb, tremble)
Sequence (layers, start)
Laptop: supplement or replacement for sound console is becoming popular. Sound designer can edit on the fly
digital audio workstation
audio playback software
- Playback Cues through the mixer
- Edit Cues for Playback
- Speaker routing
Boosts a low voltage signal received from the mixer to a high voltage signal needed to drive the speaker.
Commonly capable of running at 10 times the average requirements of the speaker
Serve any momently peaks in the average value of the speaker volume
Sized appropriately for the speakers that they are driving.
Too large will overheat
Too small will distort
how speakers work
- Transduces the electrical signal from the amplifiers into sound waves
- The signal activates an electromagnet attached to the loudspeaker frame.
- The electromagnet actives an electrical field that mimics the frequency and intensity sent from the amp and mixer
- The field cause a voice coil attached to the sound cone to vibrate back and forth
- The cone mimics the frequency and intensity of the processed electrical signal.
Horns and power drivers
speaker frequency range
Built in powered amps and signal processing
Out-load signal of mixer must match input level of speaker
Split the signal into different frequencies to the different types of speakers
Why do we need a sound console?
- The technological advances of the late 19th century
- Show control
Prerecorded music and effects
Electric light revolutionizes the presentation and production of theatre
Fully lit stages
Acting is moved from the forestage to behind the proscenium
Audiences have a difficult time hearing
Multiple microphone sources
what is a mixing console
An electronic platform for combining, routing and changing the level, timbre and dynamics of audio signals.
what can a mixing console do?
- Designed to take audio signals
- from a set of inputs
- run it through a refinement process
- send it out to a set of outputs
Boost the weak outputs of microphones and playback devices to a higher level of energy
First electronic circuit the processes signal coming from a mic or playback device
Provides the most gain, easiest place to get distortion and feed back
Often work with an amplifier within the microphone or playback device that gives the engineer more room to play
Filters that control and process the timbre or tone of the sound being sent out to the speakers (Treble, bass and equalizers)
eliminate unwanted sounds and combat feedback
make certain instruments/voices more prominent or enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone
Controls the amount of input being sent to the master fader
Pre-fade- all the sound mix happens before the final package is sent to the master
Post-fade- mixing happens in between the input fader and post fader
what are the three sections of analog sound board
- Channel Input Strip
- Master Control
- Audio Level Metering
RCA and XLR ports
parts of the input strip
Aux-send (sends the mixed signal to another unit (effects unit) for further enhancement)
provide a lot more options in a screen with routines and subroutines
Write automated or pre-recorded cues
Reconfigure by touching a button
digital sound console
Know these terms
- Auxiliary Sends
- Group/Bus Assignment Button
adjusting the pre amps
Sensitive-where the energy is boosted
Left/right control for creating the stereo field
Send to effects processing
Provide different feeds to the onstage performers
allows the engineer to listen to one input
cuts all sound throughout a channel
This allows the engineer to direct the sound to whichever group output he desires.
Group/Bus Assignment Button
types of sound cables
- unbalanced lines
- balanced lines
Single insulated conductor wrapped in a braided or foil shield.A thin plastic outer insulating jacket protects the shield
Wrapped in a braided or foil shield
Outside insulating jacket
how unbalanced lines work
- The conductor and shield carry the signal.
- The shield connects to the ground
Problems with Unbalanced Lines
- Susceptible to hum and interference from nearby electromagnetic field
- Can be induced in the shield and become part of the signalSusceptible to ground loops
An unwanted current generated when two supposedly isolated circuits use a common ground.
Major source of hum
Potential shock hazard
how balanced lines work
- The two conductors carry the signal
- The shield is grounded
advantages of balanced cable
- Creates a circuit that is immune to the effects of magnetically induced interference.
- Can be configured to eliminate ground loops.
- In a modern (good) sound system all microphones and line level signals are connected using balanced lines
A device that reduces hum and distortion in sound circuits.
Accepts inputs from both balanced and unbalanced lines
Only outputs a balanced signal
Eliminated ground loops
Electronically breaks the ground connection between the interconnected devices
is electrical connector, primarily found on professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment.
Invented in 1950 by James Cannon of Cannon Electric
How XLR Connectors Work
- Male and Female Versions
- Balanced Three Pin Connector
- Pin 1 (Earth Pin)
- Pin 2 (Hot)
- Pin 3 (cold)
- The hot and cold pins carry opposite phases of signal that are blended in the mixer
common uses for XLR cable
- Some other audio devices
- Old speakers
- Data for lighting
- Wheelchair and Scooter batteries
Cable connector, originally manufactured by Neutrik, mostly used in professional audio systems for connecting loudspeakers to amplifiers
speakon connector advantages
- No possible confusion with low-current microphone or instrument cables.
- They lock into their sockets with a twisting motion, making them significantly less prone to disconnection than standard phone plugs.
- They are shielded from human touch, preventing electrical shock from a high-powered amplifier.
- The contacts do not short out during connection or disconnection. This can be a benefit when working with sound equipment that is in operation.
- The chassis receptacles are airtight, so do not provide an air leak path from speaker enclosures.
speakon connector uses
- Connect amps to speakers
- Power for power speakers
- Power for some types of light
¼” Phone Jack and Mini-Jack
- Common family of connector typically used for analog signals, primarily audio.
- cylindrical in shape, typically with two, three or four contacts
- This connector was invented for use in telephone switchboards in the 19th century.
- (original configuration) 1⁄4 inch
- The "mini" connector has a diameter of 1⁄8 inch
¼” Phone Jack and Mini-Jack Uses
- Speakers and Patch Panels
- Head phones and ear buds
- Telephone switchboards (obsolete)
- Power to devices
- Electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The connectors are also sometimes casually referred to as A/V jacks.
- Designed in the early 1940s by the Radio Corporation of America
- Used to connect audio and video components