Anatomy & Physiology Test

  1. What are three main functions of the digestive tract?
    • -to break down food with enzymes 
    • -to remove waste from the body 
    • -to move food along with peristalsis
  2. Definition of homeostasis
    a process that maintained the human body's internal environment with its external conditions
  3. What is the endocrine system responsible for?
    communication by use of hormones
  4. where is vitamin K created in the body?
    • intestinal tract
    • - it contains bacteria that synthesizes the vitamin K to be used throughout the body
  5. what is the largest organ in the body?
    the skin
  6. what is a histologist?
    a person that studies tissues of the body
  7. erythropoiesis?
    red blood cell formation
  8. Image Upload 1 name the planes
    • blue: transverse
    • green: coronal
    • red: medial 
    • yellow: sagittal
  9. list MAJOR ventral cavities (according to hesi book)
    • -eye orbits and nose 
    • -oral cavity 
    • -thoracic 
    • -abdominopelvic
  10. what are the 4 fundamental types of tissues
    • -epithelial 
    • -connective
    • -muscle
    • -nervous
  11. Image Upload 2tissue type and purpose
    • epithelial tissue 
    • -cover, line, and protect the body and its internal organs
  12. Image Upload 3tissue type and purpose
    • connective tissue 
    • -acts as the body's framework and provides support and structure for the organs
  13. Image Upload 4tissue type and purpose
    • voluntary and involuntary muscle tissue
    • -lengthens to relax and shortens to contract to provide movement
  14. what kind of muscle is involuntary
    smooth and cardiac muscle
  15. what kind of muscle is voluntary
    skeletal muscles
  16. Image Upload 5 tissue type and purpose
    • nervous tissue 
    • -tissue that makes up the nervous system (CNS and PNS)
  17. what is nervous tissue made up of?
    neuroglia=neurons and connective tissue
  18. What do the CNS and PNS regulate?
    • CNS-brain and spine
    • PNS-regulates and controls body function and activities
  19. what are the basic units of life?
  20. what material does a cell nucleus contain? function?
    -DNA for genetic information
  21. what do proteins contain that regulate all chemical rxns in the body
  22. Image Upload 6what is this? function?
    mitochondria: powerhouse of the cell (undergoes cellular respiration)
  23. function of cell vacuoles
    to store nutrients or even waste products to keep the rest of the cell from getting contaminated
  24. function of lysosomes
    they contain packages of degredative enzymes
  25. what do ribosomes contain? function?
    -RNA and protein for protein synthesis
  26. endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus function
    helps with manufacturing and packaging
  27. purpose of Mitosis? how?
    • -growth and repair 
    • -DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to two daughter cells
  28. where does meiosis happen? how?
    • -in gonads=ovaries and testes 
    • -reduces chromosome number from 46 to 23 in the zygote when the sperm and egg is fertilized
  29. what is the epidermis made of?
    outermost layer made of keratinized epithelial cells (mostly dead)
  30. what is the dermis made up of
    layer under the epidermis made up of connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerve endings, and skin structures
  31. name the layers of the epidermis from outer to inner
    • stratum corneum 
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum granulosum 
    • stratum germinativum (made up of stratum basale and spinosum)
  32. where in the skin does mitosis occur?
    stratum germinativum
  33. where in the skin is melanin held
    epidermal cells
  34. what are the 2 types of sweat glands?
    eccrine- the most widely distributed type. they regulate the body's temperature by releasing watery secretion that evaporates from the skin surface 

    apocrine- located mainly in groin and armpit area. they have a secretion that contains cytoplasm. the debris of the cell attracts bacteria that causes odors
  35. what are sebaceous glands
    they release oily secretion (sebum) out of the hair follicles to keep the skin from drying out. the whole cell participates in this secretion (holocrine secretion). These glands are susceptible to becoming clogged with bacteria
  36. functions of the skeletal system (7)
    movement, support, detoxification, protection of internal organs, blood cell formation (hemopoiesis), provision for muscle attachment, and mineral storage
  37. discuss the anatomy of a typical bone (long bone)
    the ends have epiphysis at the ends made up of spongy (cancellous) bone

    the middle has a shaft, or diaphysis made up of compact (bone)
  38. how is compact bone formed
    cells called osteoblasts
  39. what is the axial skeleton
    the skull, vertebral column, 12 pairs of ribs, and sternum
  40. how many bones are there in the skull
    • 28
    • 2 nasal bones
    • 2 maxillary bones
    • 2 zygomatic bones
    • 1 mandible 
    • 2 palatine bones 
    • 1 vomer
    • 2 lacrimal bones
    • 2 inferior nasal conchae
  41. Image Upload 7
    mandible bone
  42. Image Upload 8
    maxillary bone
  43. Image Upload 9
    nasal bones
  44. Image Upload 10
    zygomatic bones
  45. Image Upload 11
    inferior nasal conchae
  46. Image Upload 12
  47. Image Upload 13
    palatine bones
  48. Image Upload 14
    lacrimal bones
  49. what are the bones of the cranium
    occipital, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, and ear ossicles
  50. what make up the ear ossicles?
    mallues, incus, and stapes
  51. Image Upload 15
    ethmoid bone
  52. Image Upload 16
    frontal bone
  53. Image Upload 17
    occipital bone
  54. Image Upload 18
    parietal bones
  55. Image Upload 19
    temporal bones
  56. Image Upload 20
    sphenoid bones
  57. Image Upload 21what is it? name the parts?
    • 1- stapes
    • 2- incus 
    • 3-malleus
  58. name the sections of the vertebral column
    • 7-cervical 
    • 12-thoracic 
    • 5-lumbar
    • 5-sacral (fused together to make tailbone
    • and coccygeal (tailbone)
  59. Image Upload 22
    • cervical vertebrae
    • c1-c7
  60. Image Upload 23
    • thoracic vertebrae 
    • t1-t12
  61. Image Upload 24
    • lumbar vertebrae 
    • l1-l5
  62. Image Upload 25
    sacral vertebrae (fused sacrum)

  63. Image Upload 26
    coccyx (tailbone)
  64. appendicular skeleton
    everything that includes the girdles (shoulders and hips) and the limbs

    think upper and lower when separating the two
  65. what is the os coxae, or pelvic girdle made up of?
    pubis, ischium, illium
  66. Image Upload 27
  67. Image Upload 28
  68. Image Upload 29
Card Set
Anatomy & Physiology Test
histology, mitosis & meiosis, skin, skeletal system