Biology Exam #3 (Final)

  1. Discuss Huntington’s Disease
    Misshapen protein in nerve cells. Brain Cells gradually die, lose muscle control
  2. Discuss Cystic Fibrosis
    • -Due to a recessive allele in a homozygous condition
    • -Don't produce the protein needed for passing CL out of lung cells
    • -Thick gummy mucus cause lung infections
  3. Is Huntingtons's Disease an autosomal recessive disease or an autosomal dominant disease?
    Autosomal Dominant
  4. Is Cystic Fibrosis an autosomal recessive disease or an autosomal dominant disease?
    Autosomal Recessive
  5. How does an Autosomal Dominant Disorder that always results in death remain in a population?
    People have children before they know they have the disease
  6. What are the three ways new variations can appear in a species?
    Mutation, Recombination and Immigration of genes.

    Mutation - a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  7. What is responsible for all the variation in a species?
  8. What causes almost all of the variation on a per-generation basis?
  9. Know that sexual reproduction produces the variation in a population on which natural selection can operate to cause evolution.
  10. What are the cell cycles included in both mitosis and meiosis? (Complete Detail)
    Interphase - G1 (doubles in size), S (DNA is copied), G2 (Separate DNA and organelle into daughter cells)
  11. What are the names of the stages for Mitosis?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  12. What happens to the chromosomes during each stage of Mitosis?
    • Prophase - Chromosomes are formed
    • Metaphase - Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
    • Anaphase - Chromosomes are pulled apart
    • Telophase - Chomosomes move to the opposite ends of the cell
  13. What are the names of the stages for Meiosis?
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I

    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • Telophase II
  14. What happens to the chromosomes during each stage of Meiosis?
    • Prophase I - Chomososmes pair up. Crossing Over occurs
    • Metaphase I - Chomosomes line up on the equitorial plate independendantly
    • Anaphase I - Chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell
    • Telophase I - Chromosomes lengthen

    • Prophase II - Chromosomes condense
    • Metaphase II - Chomosomes line up in the center. Centromeres divides into two.
    • Anaphase II - Chomosomes are pulled apart
    • Telophase II - Move to opposite ends
  15. What kinds of cells does each process of Mitosis produce?
    Body Cells(Diploid Cells)
  16. What kinds of cells does each process of Meiosis produce?
    Sex Cells (Haploid Cells)
  17. What is the ‘reduction division’ and what does this mean?
    The first cell division in meiosis. Produces four haploid cells from a single diploid cell.
  18. Define gene
    A unit of hereditary information with a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA. Codes for a particular character.
  19. Define allele
    A trait that is a different form of a gene
  20. Define homozygous
    Both alleles are the same
  21. Define heterozygous
    Both alleles are different
  22. Define dominant (gene)
    When one allele is enough to produce a dominant characteristic.
  23. Define recessive (gene)
    When you need two copies of an allele to produce a dominant characteristic.
  24. Define genotype
    The genetic makeup of an individual
  25. Define phenotype
    An expression of the genotype
  26. What are the two Laws of Inheritance?
    The Law of independent Assortment - The pairs of homologous chromosome line up in the equatorial plate independently of each other.

    The Law of Segregation - The two forms of a gene separate into different sex cells (Anaphase I)
  27. Simple Dominant/Recessive
    Pea Plants self fertilize.

    Mendel cut off stamens of a flower before pollen formed to be sure of the parents of the next generation.

    • Dominant allele is expressed
    • Recessive allele is present but not expressed unless homozygous
  28. Intermediate Inheritance
    Characteristics of offspring inherited from parents
  29. Multiple Alleles (blood types)
    A person will have two alleles for a particular character bloodtype

    • 4 types:
    • A - Ia, Ia Ia
    • B - Ib, Ib Ib
    • AB - Ia Ib
    • O -  i, i
  30. Mutations and Deleterious Genes
    Recessive alleles that remain in the population due to mutation
  31. Polygenic Inheritance
    When one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes

    • Height
    • Skin Color
    • Eye Color
  32. Epistasis
    When one allele of a gene hides the phenotype of another gene.
  33. What does a test cross demonstrate?
    Used to demonstrate an organism's unknown genotype
  34. Examples of the effect of the environment on gene expression
    Temperature - Animals can carry a gene that develops its fur or skin. If a gene is inactive at a certain temperature, a pigment of the fur or skin is not produced unless outside of its normal temperature where he gene can be more active.
  35. Which pattern of inheritance is Sickle Cell Anemia in?
    Autosomal Recessive
  36. Where did Sickle Cell Anemia originate?
  37. How might being heterozygous be an advantage?
    Heterozygous individuals have a higher fitness level than homozygous individuals and are less likely to suffer the worst effects of an inherited disease.
  38. What triggers red blood cells of a heterozygous person to sickle?
    Low oxygen
  39. What does it mean if genes are ‘linked’?
    • -2 genes are carried on the same chromosome
    • -Inherited together
    • -Distance is determined by frequency of crossing over
  40. Compare Mitosis and Meiosis: Number of cell divisions
    • Mitosis - 1
    • Meiosis - 2
  41. Compare Mitosis and Meiosis: Genetic makeup before and after the process.
    Mitosis - Genetically identical daughter cells

    Meiosis - Genetically different daughter cells
  42. Name and discuss the three ways by which genetic recombination can occur in bacteria.
    Transformation - bacteria breakup and thir DNA can be taken into other bacteria.

    Transduction - A virus injects DNA into a bacterium and that DNA is added to the chromosome

    Conjugation - two bacteria forma cytoplasmic bridge and transfer unequal amounts of DNA from one to the other
  43. Examples of asexual reproduction in plants and animals.
    Plants (strawberries, grass) - vegetative reproduction reproduce with runners

    Animals - Sea anemones divide into two and form a colony
  44. Who is considered to be the ‘Father of Genetics’?
    Gregor Mendel
  45. Who is Gregor Mendel?
    The ‘Father of Genetics’?
  46. What is the Rh factor?
    An antigen on red blood cells
  47. How might the Rh factor influence pregnancy?
    When an Rh negative mother's blood comes into contact with an Rh positive baby, antibodies are produced from the mother and attack the the Rh factor.
  48. Define ‘biotechnology’
    Using natural systems and technology to produce products and organisms that are useful to us.
  49. How do fraternal and identical twins occur?
    Fraternal - 2 eggs, 2 sperm

    Identical - 1 egg, 1 sperm
  50. What are plasmids?
    Small DNA molecules within a cell that are separated from chromosomal DNA
  51. How are plasmids used in recombinant DNA technology to produce human insulin or human growth hormone?
    • 1) Isolate human gene
    • 2) Put gene into E. Coli
    • 3)Take out plasmids, open them up, insert human gene, put plasmid back into bacteria
  52. Describe the three PCR steps and relate each to temperature.
    • 1) Denature the DNA with heat
    • 2) Annealing with primers occurring when the DNA is cooled.
    • 3) Extension - DNA piece is developed from the primer to the end of the section being copied.
  53. What is gel electrophoresis?
    The way you separate pieces of DNA to compare. Proceeded by PCR.
  54. What are ‘restriction enzymes’ are and what they do?
    A specific nucleotide sequence that chops DNA of a specific site
  55. What do ‘ligases’ do?
    An enzyme that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together
  56. What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation?
    p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1
  57. What are the five criteria that must hold true for no evolution to occur.
    • No Mutation
    • Random Mating
    • No Natural selection
    • No immigration or emigration
    • Huge Population
  58. Can the phenotypic frequency change even though the allele frequency stays the same?
  59. Bacteria reproduce by exchanging plasmids. True or false?
  60. The Y sex Chromosome has the same number of genes as the X chromosome. True or false?
  61. A person produces antigens to get rid of unwanted body cells. True or false?
  62. The second division of meiosis is called the reduction division. True or false?
  63. What chromosome carries the color blindness gene?
    X Chromosome
  64. Can plasmids replicate independently of the chromosome?
  65. Where are plasmids naturally found?
    In bacteria
  66. What is the electrical charge of DNA?
  67. What does PCR stand for?
    Polymerase chain reaction

    Makes copies of DNA
  68. Why is hemophilia most common in males?
    Because the gene is located on the X chromosome
Card Set
Biology Exam #3 (Final)
Study Guide for Biology