Misshapen protein in nerve cells. Brain Cells gradually die, lose muscle control
Discuss Cystic Fibrosis
-Due to a recessive allele in a homozygous condition
-Don't produce the protein needed for passing CL out of lung cells
-Thick gummy mucus cause lung infections
Is Huntingtons's Disease an autosomal recessive disease or an autosomal dominant disease?
Is Cystic Fibrosis an autosomal recessive disease or an autosomal dominant disease?
How does an Autosomal Dominant Disorder that always results in death remain in a population?
People have children before they know they have the disease
What are the three ways new variations can appear in a species?
Mutation, Recombination and Immigration of genes.
Mutation - a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
What is responsible for all the variation in a species?
What causes almost all of the variation on a per-generation basis?
Know that sexual reproduction produces the variation in a population on which natural selection can operate to cause evolution.
What are the cell cycles included in both mitosis and meiosis? (Complete Detail)
Interphase - G1 (doubles in size), S (DNA is copied), G2 (Separate DNA and organelle into daughter cells)
What are the names of the stages for Mitosis?
What happens to the chromosomes during each stage of Mitosis?
Prophase - Chromosomes are formed
Metaphase - Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase - Chromosomes are pulled apart
Telophase - Chomosomes move to the opposite ends of the cell
What are the names of the stages for Meiosis?
What happens to the chromosomes during each stage of Meiosis?
Prophase I - Chomososmes pair up. Crossing Over occurs
Metaphase I - Chomosomes line up on the equitorial plate independendantly
Anaphase I - Chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase I - Chromosomes lengthen
Prophase II - Chromosomes condense
Metaphase II - Chomosomes line up in the center. Centromeres divides into two.
Anaphase II - Chomosomes are pulled apart
Telophase II - Move to opposite ends
What kinds of cells does each process of Mitosis produce?
Body Cells(Diploid Cells)
What kinds of cells does each process of Meiosis produce?
Sex Cells (Haploid Cells)
What is the ‘reduction division’ and what does this mean?
The first cell division in meiosis. Produces four haploid cells from a single diploid cell.
A unit of hereditary information with a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA. Codes for a particular character.
A trait that is a different form of a gene
Both alleles are the same
Both alleles are different
Define dominant (gene)
When one allele is enough to produce a dominant characteristic.
Define recessive (gene)
When you need two copies of an allele to produce a dominant characteristic.
The genetic makeup of an individual
An expression of the genotype
What are the two Laws of Inheritance?
The Law of independent Assortment - The pairs of homologous chromosome line up in the equatorial plate independently of each other.
The Law of Segregation - The two forms of a gene separate into different sex cells (Anaphase I)
Pea Plants self fertilize.
Mendel cut off stamens of a flower before pollen formed to be sure of the parents of the next generation.
Dominant allele is expressed
Recessive allele is present but not expressed unless homozygous
Characteristics of offspring inherited from parents
Multiple Alleles (blood types)
A person will have two alleles for a particular character bloodtype
A - Ia, Ia Ia
B - Ib, Ib Ib
AB - Ia Ib
O - i, i
Mutations and Deleterious Genes
Recessive alleles that remain in the population due to mutation
When one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes
When one allele of a gene hides the phenotype of another gene.
What does a test cross demonstrate?
Used to demonstrate an organism's unknown genotype
Examples of the effect of the environment on gene expression
Temperature - Animals can carry a gene that develops its fur or skin. If a gene is inactive at a certain temperature, a pigment of the fur or skin is not produced unless outside of its normal temperature where he gene can be more active.
Which pattern of inheritance is Sickle Cell Anemia in?
Where did Sickle Cell Anemia originate?
How might being heterozygous be an advantage?
Heterozygous individuals have a higher fitness level than homozygous individuals and are less likely to suffer the worst effects of an inherited disease.
What triggers red blood cells of a heterozygous person to sickle?
What does it mean if genes are ‘linked’?
-2 genes are carried on the same chromosome
-Distance is determined by frequency of crossing over
Compare Mitosis and Meiosis: Number of cell divisions
Mitosis - 1
Meiosis - 2
Compare Mitosis and Meiosis: Genetic makeup before and after the process.
Mitosis - Genetically identical daughter cells
Meiosis - Genetically different daughter cells
Name and discuss the three ways by which genetic recombination can occur in bacteria.
Transformation - bacteria breakup and thir DNA can be taken into other bacteria.
Transduction - A virus injects DNA into a bacterium and that DNA is added to the chromosome
Conjugation - two bacteria forma cytoplasmic bridge and transfer unequal amounts of DNA from one to the other
Examples of asexual reproduction in plants and animals.
Plants (strawberries, grass) - vegetative reproduction reproduce with runners
Animals - Sea anemones divide into two and form a colony
Who is considered to be the ‘Father of Genetics’?
Who is Gregor Mendel?
The ‘Father of Genetics’?
What is the Rh factor?
An antigen on red blood cells
How might the Rh factor influence pregnancy?
When an Rh negative mother's blood comes into contact with an Rh positive baby, antibodies are produced from the mother and attack the the Rh factor.
Using natural systems and technology to produce products and organisms that are useful to us.
How do fraternal and identical twins occur?
Fraternal - 2 eggs, 2 sperm
Identical - 1 egg, 1 sperm
What are plasmids?
Small DNA molecules within a cell that are separated from chromosomal DNA
How are plasmids used in recombinant DNA technology to produce human insulin or human growth hormone?
1) Isolate human gene
2) Put gene into E. Coli
3)Take out plasmids, open them up, insert human gene, put plasmid back into bacteria
Describe the three PCR steps and relate each to temperature.
1) Denature the DNA with heat
2) Annealing with primers occurring when the DNA is cooled.
3) Extension - DNA piece is developed from the primer to the end of the section being copied.
What is gel electrophoresis?
The way you separate pieces of DNA to compare. Proceeded by PCR.
What are ‘restriction enzymes’ are and what they do?
A specific nucleotide sequence that chops DNA of a specific site
What do ‘ligases’ do?
An enzyme that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation?
p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1
What are the five criteria that must hold true for no evolution to occur.
No Natural selection
No immigration or emigration
Can the phenotypic frequency change even though the allele frequency stays the same?
Bacteria reproduce by exchanging plasmids. True or false?
The Y sex Chromosome has the same number of genes as the X chromosome. True or false?
A person produces antigens to get rid of unwanted body cells. True or false?
The second division of meiosis is called the reduction division. True or false?
What chromosome carries the color blindness gene?
Can plasmids replicate independently of the chromosome?