Geography of the Territorial North

  1. The Territorial North
    • largest region (39%)
    • resource frontier
    • import all manufactured goods from the South
    • remoteness, resources, and Aboriginal presence
    • .3 of population .5 GDP
    • unemployment and underemployment
  2. GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
    one of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country's economy. It represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period; you can think of it as the size of the economy.
  3. Historical Geography of the North
    • non-Ab settlement is relatively recent
    • region was a forgotten frontier after whaling and fur trade
    • strategically significant during the Cold War, e.g. DEW line
    • Aboriginal land claims past and future effect development
  4. Native Production in the North
    • with time, assimilated into industrial-capitalist system
    • recent identity reclaiming through education, cultural pride, and naming places
  5. Northern Climate
    • four physiographic regions and two climate zones
    • fragile ecosystems that take time to recover from human activity
    • cold, especially permafrost, challenges development
  6. Effects of Global Warming in the North
    • permafrost limit and tree line will move North
    • possible international access through Arctic waters and Hudson’s Bay
    • debate over sovereignty of Hans Island with Denmark
    • Each Harbour Inuvialuit hunting season significantly reduced already by a month
  7. Arctic Land Rush
    • Canada, USA, Russia, Norway, and Denmark (Greenland)
    • Russia wants to claim the North Pole and Lomonoslav Ridge for oil and gas
    • 200 nautical mile limit from outlying islands sets previous agreement for EEZ
  8. Polar Hawks
    • pilotless polar drone
    • 10km up to monitor shipping, oil spills, measure ice, and track wildlife
    • powered to fly entire missions (30h) without ground control
    • only one station needed to maintain a small squad of 3 for constant surveillance
    • cost unknown, set 1.6 billion
  9. Beaufort Boundary Dispute
    • between Can and USA over the arctic waters off of the Yukon and Alaskan coast
    • oil and gas in this area
    • the debate has been going on for decades
    • 2016 US proposal drill for oil and gas
  10. Megaproject
    large scale construction projects, often related to resource extraction, that exceed $1 billion and take more than two years to complete
  11. The Giant Mine
    • built without consent of Dene Aboriginal people on their hunting and harvesting grounds
    • Yellowknife
    • companies made 1.1 billion, and government collected 572 million in taxes
  12. Clean Up for The Giant Mine
    • toxic arsenic trioxide (by product of extracting gold) spread and contaminated the land around the mine in 1949
    • 237 thou tones are currently buried, and the plan is to keep it frozen forever?
    • after the company abandoned the mine, Aboriginal affairs and Northern Development Canada cleaned up the site, approx $903 million
    • arsenic trioxide remains toxic to life forever
    • environmental assessment plan: independent oversight body, perpetual care plan, research into a permanent solution, and review every 100y
  13. Deh Cho Bridge
    • built in 2012, bridges the Mackenzie river
    • replaces ferry service
    • first year-round road link from NWT to the country
  14. Whitehorse
    capital of Yukon
  15. Yellowknife
    capital of NWT
  16. Iqaluit
    capital of Nunavut
  17. Urban Geography of the North
    • major cities are the capitals, Whitehorse, Yellowknife, and Iqaluit
    • underemployment is less of a problem here because of government jobs
  18. Northern Defense
    • Alert (very tippy top of the North) is still a military base from the Cold War
    • Resolute (still in the arctic islands area) will become a naval base to secure Canada’s Arctic sovereignty
  19. Inuit Regions
    • four regions, only Nunavut has stand alone political rights
    • regions in northern NWT, QU, and NL have won some autonomy
  20. Future of the North
    • continue to suffer boom-and-bust economic cycles without a more diverse economy
    • political and economic changes urge for improvements to social conditions
  21. Economic Sectors in the North
    • primary and tertiary mainly
    • very little secondary (manufacturing) is done, except for ore extraction
    • most people (83%) work in the service industry
  22. Territorial Formula Financing
    • equalization payments for the North
    • necessary, but still not enough to close the gap between north and south
  23. Territorial Governing
    • dependent on payments from Federal government
    • territorial formula financing goes to infrastructure development and work-force education
    • high rate of employment because more effort is needed to get people basic services and each citizen requires more money than provincial residents
  24. Population in the North
    • highest concentration of Aboriginal peoples
    • highest natural growth rate due to high birth rate and low death rate
    • migrant workers from southern Can come and leave with job opportunities
    • more Aboriginal people are moving south to take advantage of economic and social conditions
  25. South Nahanni National Park
    • one of the world’s great rivers
    • southwester NWT
    • passes hot springs, gigantic waterfall, and cut through a canyon
  26. Non-Renewable Resources in the North
    • far more value in non-renewable resources than renewable in this region
    • boom-and-bust cycles of economy, ie. not stable
    • subject to world prices and economy
    • megaprojects generate money for corporations and the south (because the market in the north is small), but do little to help the local economy beyond the construction phase
    • most resources are concentrated in NWT
  27. Northern Wells Oil Field
    • discovered in 1920
    • before the pipeline was built the field served the local community and the military during WWII
    • Esso built a pipeline in 1985 and increased production x10
    • Dene aboriginals and environmental committee did not believe that the project was environmentally and socially responsible, but it went forwards anyways
    • production is falling, but increased gas prices offset that for Esso
    • the project is considered successful
  28. Ekati Diamond Mine
    • Yukon
    • first surface and underground diamond mine
    • operates continuously, 24h a day, every day of the year
    • 2% of world’s diamonds and 6% of world value
  29. NWT Diamonds
    • third largest producer of diamonds in the world
    • lakes had to be drained to access diamonds deposits
    • employ 800 workers, pickup for air-commuting in Yellowknife, so money stays in the territory
    • what will happen after the diamonds are gone in the next decade?
  30. Northern Aboriginal Land Claims
    • surrender claim to all land in exchange for a title to a smaller parcel of land, money, a larger area for hunting and fishing
    • other issues: self-government, language and cultural preservation, wildlife resource management
    • Inuvialuit (northern NWT and Yukon) were the first claim in 1984
  31. Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk Highway
    • highway to connect the two cities
    • projected to finish 2017-18
Card Set
Geography of the Territorial North
Dr. Irwin, UBC, GEOG 290