Atlantic Canada Geography

  1. Provinces in Atlantic Canada
    • Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and PEI
    • smallest population and weakest economy in Southern Canada
  2. Maritimes
    • Atlantic Can minus Newfoundland and Labrador
    • ie. NS, NB, PEI
  3. Major Difficulties in Atlantic Canada
    • an old and used resource hinterland
    • migration of young generation away from the area
    • loss of culture and skills
    • have-not region dependent on equalization payments
  4. Weather in Atlantic Canada
    • effected by the Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream current
    • mild most of the year but severe winter storms, icebergs in June, lots of snow
  5. Labrador Current
    • flows south from the North Atlantic which carries iceberg down to Newfoundland
    • mixes with warm waters of the Gulf stream to create fog and mist
  6. Gulf Stream
    • north-east current from the Gulf of Mexico
    • mixes with cold water of Labrador Current to create fog and mist and severe winter storms
  7. Basic Statistics Atlantic Canada
    • slow growing economy
    • all provinces received equalization payments until the discovery of oil off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador in 2009
    • high rate of unemployment
    • low GDP for population
    • French-Speaking Acadians settled here
  8. Employment by Economic Sectors in Atlantic Canada
    • decreases in primary and secondary sectors and increase in tertiary common to other provinces
    • total number of workers has stayed constant -> stagnant economy
    • out-migration and air-commuting to AB for jobs
  9. Economic Head Start in Atlantic Canada
    • British Empire exploited cod and lumber
    • NS and NB were the shipbuilding centre of the Brit Empire in 1840
    • trade with Caribbean and Britain (imports, and high demand for exports)
    • traded with America after industrialization post Civil War
  10. Slow Growth in Atlantic Canada
    • historical decline, out migration, and absence of economic growth
    • decline of fisheries
    • lowest GDP and highest unemployment in Canada
  11. Fall of Exports from Maritimes
    • Britain opened up free trade in 1849, and Maritimes lost guaranteed markets
    • iron replaces wood in shipbuilding
    • end of Reciprocity Treaty in 1866, meant no more exports to USA
  12. Decline of Atlantic Fisheries
    • overfishing of cod in 1980s led to government restrictions on cod fishing and tighter control of all fishing licences
    • Newfoundland and Labrador mainly focus on lobster and shellfish, , but very few licences are permitted
    • returns per fisher are high
    • the fishing industry is concentrated in smaller and smaller circles of people
    • devastating to NL where it has ended a way of life
    • Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans was supposed to be responsible for managing cod
  13. Hibernia
    • an oil deposit in the Grand Banks (cod fishing area)
    • specially designed off-shore platform to endure winter storms and icebergs
  14. Reasons for Modern Economic Difficulties in Atlantic Can
    • political division into four provinces: no economies of scale, multiple government expenses
    • resources: non-renewable resources are used up, and renewable resources were overexploited
    • dispersed population with small markets
    • distance from national and international global markets
  15. Hopeful Economic Future for Atlantic Canada
    • offshore gas and oil discovery
    • huge shipbuilding contract from Ottawa
    • trade agreement in the works with the EU
    • potential for hydro-power development
  16. Lower Churchill Project
    • hydro-power project to dam the unused parts of the Churchill River in Labrador
    • electricity could be sold to Maritimes and New England
    • may have the ability to unite the Atlantic, since most energy connections now go through QU
  17. Equalization Payments to Atlantic Canada
    • federal government pays 3 million to the region every year to generate fiscal capacity
    • approximately 20% of federal payments
    • the amount has decreased since 2006, but Maritimes are still dependent
  18. Out-Migration from Rural Atlantic
    • rural towns and villages based in the fishing industry don’t have the workers to support them
    • employment and econ growth in urban centres
    • skilled workers exodus to AB, leaving few skilled workers in the region
  19. Population Decline in Atlantic
    • loss of population predominately in smaller communities
    • falling birth rate and steady death rate
    • little in-migration
    • massive out-migration
  20. The Big Commute
    • people who live in the Atlantic provinces, but fly to AB for two weeks to work and then fly home for a week
    • corporations provide airfare, food, and housing
    • pay $100,000 a year before overtime
    • influx of money to the province
  21. Hidden Costs of The Big Commute
    • dependent on an industry on the other side of the country
    • families, social structure, individual lives and values
  22. Urban Geography in Atlantic
    • two largest cities are Halifax (13th in Can) and St. John’s (20th)
    • least urbanized region (just over 50%)
  23. Halifax
    • dominant metropolitan centre for Maritimes
    • deep, ice-free harbour; major container port
    • naval base
    • relatively large population/market
  24. St. John’s, NL
    • dominant metropolitan centre for NL
    • offshore oil, fishing industry, government services
    • Arctic marine research and resupply
  25. Saint John, NB
    • energy hub for New England, receiving foreign natural gas from Caribbean and Middle East en route to US
    • gateway to NS and PEI
    • francophone population is gateway to Acadian area of NB
  26. Halifax Citadel
    National Historic Site created by the Brits to defend the port
  27. LNG
    liquified natural gas
  28. Methylmercury and Hydropower
    • flooding forested areas for hydropower increases the level of methylmercury in the water and therefore in fish
    • it is apparently not dangerous, except to children and women of child-bearing age (so, no big deal, right)
    • especially a concern for proposed Lower Churchill project
  29. Forestry Industry in Atlantic
    • slowly hemmoraging
    • hit by housing crisis in US, high dollar increasing cost for US buyers, print newspaper decline, and rising electricity costs
    • mirrored in other pulp and lumber mills across Canada
  30. AV Nackawic Mill
    • produces rayon fabric from wood fibre from Asia
    • went under in 2004
    • bailed out multiple times by government-funded corporations, and government loans
    • still operating in 2012, but planning on reducing labour force
  31. Confederation Bridge
    • connects PEI to NB
    • increased tourism, real estate boom
    • accessibility to markets for seafood products
    • increased potato growing and potato products
  32. PEI Potato Production
    • about 1/3 of Canadian production
    • fills markets for seeds, table potatoes, and processing potatoes
  33. Annapolis Valley
    • fertile soil from marine deposits
    • at sea level surrounded by rocky upland
    • settled by Acadians
    • best agricultural land in NS
    • vineyards are replacing apple orchards
  34. The Tragedy of the Commons
    • open access property
    • many people have access to an open resource, but no one is responsible for overseeing and managing the resource
    • self-interests outweighs community welfare (under capitalism)
    • often leads to overuse and degradation
  35. Exclusive Economic Zone
    • a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
    • in Atlantic Canada, 200 nautical miles
Card Set
Atlantic Canada Geography
Dr. Irwin, UBC, GEOG 290, week 8, Atlantic Canada