Ontario Geography

  1. Northern Ontario Physical Geography
    • Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands
    • resource hinterland
    • subartic: long and coldered winters, shorter and cooler summers
  2. Canadian Shield in ON
    • rocky terrain with little arable land for agriculture + short growing season
    • low elevation (no hydro), but forested for logging, scenic for tourism, mineral wealth
  3. Hudson Bay Lowlands
    • poorly drained plain
    • muskeg and permafrost
    • hunting and trapping
    • inhabited mostly by Cree
  4. Southern Ontario Physical Geography
    • Great Lakes and St Lawrence Lowlands
    • central in Canada and close to USA industrial core
    • 93% of the provinces’s population lives in this area
  5. Southern ON Climate
    • longest growing season in Canada
    • moderate continental climate: long and warm summer from May-Sept and frigid winter (Nov-March)
  6. Southern ON Farming
    • significantly smaller acreage than Western Can (1/8th) with diversified crops
    • crops: grain corn, barley, winter wheat, soybeans, grapes, veggies, tobacco, dairy
    • southwest of Toronto has a longer growing season and more fertile soil than to the east
  7. Essex-Kent Vegetable Area
    west of Toronto
  8. Norfolk Tobacco Belt
    west of Toronto
  9. Niagra Fruit Belt
    • west of Toronto, 65 km between Hamilton and Niagra
    • grows fine grapes and makes fine wine
  10. Wealth of ON
    largest single market in Canada with highest population in all provinces and high GDP, but higher unemployment rates which shows the effects of recession
  11. Recession in ON
    • province’s wealth shaken by economic downturn in 2008, especially with car industry
    • forestry and manufacturing are stalled in the old economy
    • received equalization payment for the first time in 2009
  12. Economic Slip in ON
    • US imported less goods following financial crisis in 2008
    • low-cost Chinese manufactured goods undercut Can goods and displaced local business
    • Western Canada and BC benefited from Chinese commodity boom -> econ growth
    • Canadian dollar is high, increasing cost of exports, so less goods are exported
    • province is in heavy debt and unable to lead the country out of recession
  13. Recovering from the Recession in ON
    • requires US economy to recover
    • fresh directions and investments
    • negotiating with the US Republican party and working against their protectionist view on imports
  14. ON Economic Prognosis
    • if the province reinvents itself, it could recover its economic position in Canada
    • if the province stagnate, it could become similar to the Rust Belt in the States
  15. Missed Manufacturing Opportunities for ON
    • economic boom in Western Can and BC supported by foreign manufacturing firms
    • ON could restructure its manufacturing to support the economics in other provinces
  16. China Syndrome
    manufacturing shifts to low-cost countries means that developed countries cannot compete with manufacturing costs (because they actually have to pay their workers a decent wage), which leads to factories closing and moving to Mexico etc.
  17. Farmland vs Urban Development in ON
    • farmland is being taken over by urban landscapes
    • primarily because farmland is priced at a much lower value than urban land
  18. Highland Companies Quarry in ON
    company seeks to turn extremely fertile farmland and soil into a quarry to mine resources for building roads and highways
  19. Air Pollution in ON
    • car dependency in the province, despite efficient engines, it is not enough
    • thermoelectric plants burn coal for energy, and moving away from coal has been slow
  20. Water Pollution in ON
    • causes: industrial run-off, chemicals from farms, and livestock waste
    • commitment with the US to maintain (and restore) water quality of the Great Lakes
  21. Walkerton Incident
    drinking water was contaminated with e. coli bacteria from farm waste, resulting in seven deaths and many illnesses
  22. Environmental Challenges in the Great Lakes Basin
    • global warming leading to declining water levels, mean retracting shorelines and water erosion
    • exotic species introduction push out native species and negatively impact fisheries
    • exotic species examples: sea lampreys, zebra mussels
  23. American Revolution and ON Settlement
    • pre-war: forested wild for fur traders and First Nations
    • post-war: settlement of Brit loyalists, Americans, Europeans, and 6 Nations along the upper St. Lawerence creating a Brit agricultural colony called Upper Canada
  24. War of 1812
    • distinctly separated Canada and the US
    • American settlers stopped coming to Upper Canada
    • most settlers after the ware were from the UK
  25. Canada West
    • previously known as Upper Canada until Act of Union in 1841 until Confederation in 1867
    • most arable land was cleared in the Great Lakes Basin
    • land shortage led farmers to migrate to Manitoba, the Shield, and the States
    • most of the power was in rural communities (only 20% of the population in urban centres)
  26. ON during Confederation
    • important to the process
    • borders have been extended three times since Confederation
  27. Reciprocity Treaty
    • manufacturing boosted in 1850s when Britain allowed free trade with US
    • in 1866 US let the treaty lapse, so government placed high tariffs on imported goods
    • manufacturing in ON flourished, as factories grew and demand for ON products was increased across Canada
    • however, outside of ON, it was still cheaper for provinces to get goods from US due to high Can transportation costs and higher manufacturing scale in US
    • beginnings of Western alienation and Maritime dissatisfaction with Confederation
  28. Aboriginal Land Rights in ON
    • treaties were largely unnumbered and took place hundreds of years ago
    • fuzziness of facts makes it difficult to settle disputes and slow pace has led to protests
  29. Ipperwash
    • land was taken from Stony Point Indians in 1942 to create a training camp for WWII and not returned
    • protests in 1993 over repeated stonewalling by Ottawa led to a sniper shooting an unarmed person
    • the government promised to immediately return the land, but still in limbo in 2010
  30. Caledonia
    • land claims by Six Nations go back to 1784 and continue with land surrenders in the next century, but without clear records
    • protesting ended and negotiation began, but hit an impasse in 2009 because the government rejected the the monetary claim
  31. Modern ON as Canada’s Core
    • largest economy and population of 6 regions
    • average personal income is significantly larger than national average
    • greatest cluster of major cities, universities, and technology centres
    • most Members of Parliament
    • central to both east-west and north-south trading routes across Canada and US
    • manufacturing and financial centre (even after the downturn)
  32. Goals of Ontario
    • knowledge based economy that is less dependent of labour costs
    • creative class of workers attracted to interesting cities, and ON has a high concentration of those
    • shift towards green energy (but green energy costs more and the cost is a deterrent to development)
  33. Manufacturing and Trade in ON
    • the province produces more than Canada can use
    • 80% of manufactured goods are exported to the US
  34. Canada-US Automotive Products Agreement
    • 1965
    • guarantee that Can auto plants wouldn’t close
    • economies of scale (NAFTA and integration with North American market)
    • Canadian consumers paid less for cars
    • higher wages and benefits for workers
  35. Termination of Auto Pact
    • 2001
    • Toyota and Honda (Japanese companies) got more of the market share in NA
    • foreign companies shipping cars and parts to Can
    • globalization impacts Can auto market more and more
    • recession -> drying up of ON principle market
  36. Automotive Assembly Plants
    • southern Ontario, especially in between all the Great Lakes for easy transport to US and Canada
    • Asian companies are opening more plants in ON
  37. Automobile Parts Firms Production Principles
    • just-in-time: components made in small batches and delivered quickly (impeded by delays at border)
    • outsourcing: assembling factories commission parts manufacturers to make parts at a lower cost
  38. “Canadian Advantage” in Auto Industry
    • high worker productivity
    • health-care program (so the company isn’t responsible, the government is)
    • weak Canadian dollar
  39. Northern Canada Development Areas
    • along the trans-Canada and Canadian Pacific Railline
    • Canadian National rail line and northern link of trans-Can
    • main centre for mineral mining in Canada
  40. Ring of Fire
    • mineralized belt in northern ON
    • nickel, copper, platinum, and chromite (Black Thor) to make stainless steel
    • but mineral mining is a non-renewable resource that typically only lasts for about 20 years
    • agreements and treaties need to be made with First Nations who live in the area
    • transportation (road or rail) need to be developed
  41. Northern ON Demographics
    • agin population
    • out-migration, esp of young people
    • few immigrants
    • small and rapidly growing Cree and Métis population
    • long distances between major industries
  42. Forestry in Northern ON
    • old technology in pre-WWII mills with high levels of toxic waste
    • fluctuations in US demand for softwood, with extremely low prices resulting in higher exportation tax
  43. Urban Geography ON
    • most urbanized province, 85%
    • 10 of the 25 largest Can cities
    • Toronto is the largest city in Canada
    • fastest growing: guelph, oshawa, toronto
    • slowest growing: st catharines, niagara, sudbury, thunder bay
  44. The Golden Horsehoe
    • the western loop around Lake Ontario, including Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto, and Oshawa
    • names for it’s high economic performance over the years
    • 1/4 of total Canadian population lives in this area
  45. Immigration in Toronto
    predominately Indian, Chinese, Italian, Philippine, and UK (in that order)
  46. Ottawa Valley
    • both Fr and Eng are used
    • fourth largest metropolitan area in Canada (Ottawa-Gatineau)
    • major employer is the Federal government, and there are offshoot companies that provide goods and services
    • pulp mills, Silicon Valley
  47. Southwestern Ontario
    • Lake Erie to Lake Huron
    • auto-part plants and high-tech firms
    • Technology Triangle of tech development in the universities in Kitchener, Waterloo, and Cambridge
  48. Great Lakes Names and Order
    • Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario
    • mnemonic for Great Lakes
    • Sergeant Major Hates Eating Onions (west to east)
Card Set
Ontario Geography
George Irwin, UBC, Geography 290, week 7, Ontario