The interviewer introduces him or herself in an unbiased way
Describe the interview rules
Have the child promise to tell the truth
Raise the topic under investigation
Open-questioning to elicit the who, what, where, and when of the event
Specific questions to clarify and expand on information already disclosed
Free recall a second time
Conclude the interview
Name and discuss the two principles of memory relied on by Fisher and Geiselman (1992) when they developed the Cognitive interview?
(1) Feature Overlap (1): Effective memory retrieval is related to the amount of feature overlap between the retrieval cue and the original event (1) (encoding specificity (1)). We often think of retrieval cues as being external to the rememberer, but they can be internal too (1).
(2) Multiple Retrieval Paths (1): There may be several retrieval paths to the encoded event (1); if the information is not available with one retrieval cue it may be available with another retrieval cue.(1) Part of the effect is explained by different retrieval cues accessing different details. (1)
Discuss the principle of witness compatible questioning?
It is a principle introduced in the (Enhanced) Cognitive Interview. (1) Retrieval is most likely to be successful if the details reported are consistent with the witness’ current mental record. (1) So, if the witness is currently thinking about the perpetrator, it is not efficient to ask him/her about the location. (1) First, a question about the location is likely to end their mental record of the perpetrator, perhaps before the witness has reported all that he/she can recall about the perpetrator.(1) Second, the witness may answer questions about the location before he/she has an ideal mental record of it. (1)
Compare and contrast the role of the practice interview in each of the interview protocols discussed in this course.
Across all protocols, it is suggested that the event that is used in the practice interview should be neutral (1). All interview protocols use the practice interview to teach children how to talk about the past in as much detail as possible (1).
Except for the ECI, all protocols direct the interviewer to conduct the practice interview the same way he or she will conduct the substantive portion of the interview. (1)
The ECI does not have a well-developed practice interview protocol, probably because it was developed to be used with adults (1)
Only with the NE protocol is it suggested that the event be familiar to the interviewer, in all other protocols, the event that is the subject of the practice interview need not be familiar to the interviewer (1)
Only the NICHD protocol specifically directs interviewers not to select a topic that is based on fantasy or play. (1)
Only the NICHD protocol suggests that the event that is the topic of the practice interview be something that occurred around the time of the alleged offence (1)
Only the Step-wise protocol specifically suggests other purposes of the practice interview: investigate children’s understanding of important concepts (1), give the interviewer a baseline measure of children’s language (1) and memory skills (1), give the interviewer a sense of the demeanor of the child when talking about non-threatening past events (1).
Should children be interviewed multiple times? Discuss the relevant research and provide your considered opinion on this important issue.
Repeated interviews could capitalize on a phenomenon known as reminiscence (1). Reminiscence refers to the recall of new (1), correct (1) information during a subsequent interview. Importantly, if the first interview occurs long after the incident, the information recalled in subsequent interviews may be less accurate (1).
Repeated interviews may also inoculate against forgetting (1) if the interview acts as a rehearsal that strengthens memory for the event (1). Because a stronger memory is more resistant to suggestions, repeated interviews may also increase resistance to suggestive questions (1). Once again, this effect depends on the interviews occurring shortly after the event occurred, before a substantial amount of forgetting occurs (1).
The reminiscence effect is not as strong when the target event is very emotional (perhaps it is so well remembered that it does not benefit from repeated retrieval attempts). (1) Second, if the interview is suggestive, repeating it may substantially heighten suggestibility effects. (1) Third, if the interview contains a lot of closed questions, repeating the interview may lead to children changing their answers (if she is asking me this question again, maybe my last answer was wrong) (1) Fourth, repeated interviews can be distressing for children (1).
A reasonable conclusion: if the interview is based on good interviewing practices (1), and the first interview occurs shortly after the alleged offence (1), and there are a reasonable number of interviews (1), there may be many benefits derived from repeated interviews.
Which interview protocol specifically directs the interviewer to gather information about the disclosure process?
In which interview protocol are children specifically asked to explain what it means to tell the truth and to tell a lie?
In which interview protocol is it recommended that the topic of the practice interview be familiar to the interviewer?
b. Narrative Elaboration
In a forensic interview, a child was asked to think hard about the day of the alleged assault. She was asked to think about sounds, smells, conversations that occurred at the time. Which basic principle of memory is being used?
b. Encoding specificity
What is the expected organization of a report elicited with narrative elaboration?
c. Actions, conversations, participants, and setting
According to the meta-analysis done by Memon et al. (2010) what can be said about the Cognitive Interview relative to a structured interview?
b. There is a substantial increase in correct information and a small increase in incorrect information
According to the Step-wise interview, interviewers should not begin the interview with a single hypothesis. Why (select the best answer)?
b. The interviewer may become biased
According to Lamb et al. (2007), compared to interviews that did not use the NICHD protocol, when the NICHD protocol was used __________
d. Interviewers used three times more open prompts
Which interview protocol uses pictorial reminders of retrieval cues?
b. Narrative Elaboration
Which interview protocol was originally developed to be used with adults?
d. Cognitive Interview
Which interview protocol presents a WH-chart?
In one of the interview protocols, it is suggested that the topic of the practice interview be familiar to the interviewer. Why?
a. The interviewer can provide feedback on accuracy and completeness
Which interview protocol allows for the most directive prompts when introducing the alleged abuse?
Which Interview protocol is, arguably, the most carefully researched for use with children?
According to the step-wise interview, if multiple choice questions must be asked, how should they be formatted?
c. At least three options
Which interview protocol capitalizes on children’s well-developed understanding of stories?
b. Narrative Elaboration
In a forensic interview, a child was asked to report that event from the end to the beginning. Which prompt is being used?
d. Report in a variety of orders
Which interview protocol was the first to include a second free recall attempt from the child?
If a child alleges repeated abuse, the interviewer is advised to identify the ones the child remembers best and not to ask the child about what typically happens. Which protocol does this describe?
According to the step-wise interview, under what circumstances may specific questions be asked?
a. To clarify and extend information already disclosed by the child
Which Cognitive Interview prompt raised concerns about it encouraging children to imagine or make things up?
d. Report the event from a variety of perspectives
According to the Step-wise Interview, under what circumstances can a child be asked more directive prompts to help them to make an initial disclosure
c. If the interviewer suspects that the child is at risk
According to the NICHD protocol, which type of follow-up question allows the interviewer to ask the child about things that had not yet been disclosed in the interview?
According to the meta-analysis done by Memon et al. (2010) what can be said about use of the use of Cognitive Interview with children?
a. It is less effective with children than adults
The Cognitive Interview is not as effective with children as it is with adults. Which of the following prompt likely accounts for this?
c. Report from the end to the beginning
Which interview protocol specifically discourages interviewer from asking children about TV during the rapport building phase of the interview?
If a child alleges repeated abuse, the interviewer is advised to invite the child to describe what typically happens before asking about a particular incident. Which protocol does this describe?
“My name is xxxxx, I am a social worker and it is my job to talk to kids who have been hurt by adults.” What is wrong with this introduction?
c. It is suggestive
According to the step-wise interview, are leading or suggestive question ever permitted?
d. Only if the interviewer strongly suspects that the child is in danger
Which “story feature” is not prompted in one of the interview protocols discussed in this course?
When the Cognitive Interview was modified for use with children, which prompt was omitted?
d. Report the event from a variety of perspectives
According to the NICHD protocol, what is an important feature of the event selected for the practice interview?
c. It occurred around the time of the alleged abuse
Which of the following was the first formal interview protocols designed for use with children?
According to the NICHD protocol, what is the order of question types?