Camelids- Surgery

  1. What is the etiology of tooth root abscesses in camelids?
    • abrasions of oral mucosa and disruption of the periodontal membrane--> ascending infection
    • often caused by rough or stemmy hay
    • maybe premature breaking of deciduous cap?
  2. Which teeth preferentially get tooth root abscesses?
    molars, where the grinding occurs
  3. What are clinical signs of tooth root abscesses? (7)
    • swelling over mandible
    • draining tract (if chronic)
    • pain/ anorexia
    • unilateral nasal d/c (if maxillary)
    • altered mastication
    • hypersalivation
    • weight loss
  4. What are the surgical goals of treating a tooth root abscess? (3)
    • remove nidus for infection (tooth, tooth root, sequestrum)
    • debride dead or diseased bone
    • provide drainage (pack with a tampon)
  5. What is the most common angular limb deformity of camelids?
    carpal valgus
  6. What are treatment options for angular limb deformity?
    • Conservative: do nothing, splints
    • Surgical: transphyseal bridging, periostal stripping, corrective osteotomy
  7. What is the most common technique to surgically correct angular limb deformity in crias? How is it achieved?
    • transphyseal bridging
    • bridge physis on convex side to slow growth on that side (screws placed in epiphysis and metaphysis then wire bridging)
  8. At what age do you perform transphyseal bridging?
    • old enough that the bone will hold the screws (2 weeks)
    • young enough that growth plates are still open
  9. What is the mechanism of periosteal stripping?
    remove the restraint of the periosteum on that concave side of the bone, to allow it to grow faster
  10. Why are camelids semi-obligate nasal breathers?
    naturally elongated soft palate
  11. What are clinical signs of choanal atresia, and how is it diagnosed?
    • open mouth breathing, respiratory distress
    • Dx by nasal catheterization and radiography
  12. What are treatment options for choanal atresia?
    • euthanasia
    • surgery: only for MEMBRANOUS atresia, these animals should not be bred [trephine through nasal bones dorsal to choanae, open choanae blunting, dilate or place catheter for healing, periodic balloon dilation for a month]
  13. Describe the surgical correction of a cleft palate.
    • tracheostomy
    • dorsal recumbency
    • mandibular symphysotomy
    • free up excessive palatal tissues BUT preserve palatal arteries
  14. What are complicating factors of surgical repair of cleft palate?
    • tissue availability- tension on closure, blood supply to tissues
    • abrasive action of tongue on closure
    • contaminated environment (mouth is not sterile!)
  15. What are indications for a C1 "rumenotomy"? (4)
    • ingestion of toxic plants
    • grain overload/ C1 acidosis
    • trichobezoars
    • C1 cannulation
  16. How do you approach for a C1 rumenotomy?
    left flank/ paralumbar fossa
  17. What are electrolyte abnormalities common with GI obstruction?
    • hypochloremia
    • hypokalemia
    • alkalosis
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Camelids- Surgery
vetmed camelids