Describe the microbial properties of B canis. (4)
- gram negative coccobacillus
- fastidious in culture
- persists in the environment
What are the most common routes of Brucella transmission to humans? (2)
- Raw Milk (unpasteurized
- Laboratory Workers
What is the reportability of Brucella canis in Ohio?
- in Ohio, reportable if positive, reportable if you RUN A TEST (even if it’s negative)
- Human or Dogs
What is the natural reservoir of B canis? (2)
domestic and wild canidae
What are modes of dog-to-dog transmission of B canis? (9)
- fetus, placenta, fetal membranes, vaginal d/c******** (shed in vaginal d/c for up to 6 weeks post-abortion)
- semen****** (venereal)
- intra-uterine to pups
- nasal and ocular d/c
- syringes/ fomites
- [can shed intermittently for years]
B canis is most common in...
- stray/ feral dogs, breeding kennels
- HUGE reproductive losses (75% fewer puppies weaned)
What are modes of transmission of B canis to humans? (2)
- contamination of MMs and abraded skin
- close contact required (infected dogs, bacterial cultures)
What is the incubation period of B canis in dogs?
- 2-3 weeks (before they become infectious)
- then considered infected for life
What are clinical signs of B canis in dogs?
- signs are highly variable ("The Great Imposter")- many asymptomatic
- lethargy, decreased appetite
- stiffness, back pain
- late term abortion (7th-9th week), stillbirth
- vaginal discharge
- weak puppies that die soon after birth
- Males: abnormal sperm. epididymitis, scrotal edema, orchitis, testicular atrophy
Describe the laboratory diagnosis of B canis.
- [able to Dx 1-4 weeks after infection]
- Serology: Rapid slide agglutination, indirect fluorescent antibody, AGID, ELISA
- Culture and ID
Describe signs of B canis in humans.
- may be asymptomatic
- may be acute febrile illness with spontaneous recovery, waxing and waning
- arthritis, spondylitis
- chronic fatigure
Describe prevention and control of B canis.
- [no vaccine exists]
- antimicrobials often not effective- strongly discouraged
- spay and neuter
- PPE- suspect cases, during whelping, contact with vaginal secretions
- caution lab workers when culturing
- readily killed by most disinfectants
What is the suggested surveillance program for kennels and breeding programs?
- 2 negative tests 8 weeks apart before introducing a new dog
- periodic screening of breeding pairs, dogs returning after leaving kennel, males used for semen collection
- test all dogs >6 months old at least once a year
- remove infected dogs after screening test and confirmatory test (one test to screen, select a different test to confirm)
What are the regulations in Ohio for licensed high volume dog breeders?
ALL must have B canis monitoring plan approved by the ODA
Who can test a dog for B canis?
- only licensed and accredited DVM or licensed RVT under the DIRECT supervision of a DVM can draw the test samples and interpret the results
- Animal tested must have permanent ID- microchip, tattoo, ear tag, or neck chain with official tag
- ALL results (positive or negative) must be reported to the ODA within 7 days