PrevMed3- B canis

  1. Describe the microbial properties of B canis. (4)
    • gram negative coccobacillus
    • intracellular
    • fastidious in culture
    • persists in the environment
  2. What are the most common routes of Brucella transmission to humans? (2)
    • Raw Milk (unpasteurized
    • Laboratory Workers
  3. What is the reportability of Brucella canis in Ohio?
    • in Ohio, reportable if positive, reportable if you RUN A TEST (even if it’s negative)
    • Human or Dogs
  4. What is the natural reservoir of B canis? (2)
    domestic and wild canidae
  5. What are modes of dog-to-dog transmission of B canis? (9)
    • fetus, placenta, fetal membranes, vaginal d/c******** (shed in vaginal d/c for up to 6 weeks post-abortion)
    • semen****** (venereal)
    • intra-uterine to pups
    • urine
    • saliva
    • nasal and ocular d/c
    • feces
    • milk
    • syringes/ fomites
    • [can shed intermittently for years]
  6. B canis is most common in...
    • stray/ feral dogs, breeding kennels
    • HUGE reproductive losses (75% fewer puppies weaned)
  7. What are modes of transmission of B canis to humans? (2)
    • ingestion 
    • contamination of MMs and abraded skin
    • close contact required (infected dogs, bacterial cultures)
  8. What is the incubation period of B canis in dogs?
    • 2-3 weeks (before they become infectious)
    • then considered infected for life
  9. What are clinical signs of B canis in dogs?
    • signs are highly variable ("The Great Imposter")- many asymptomatic
    • lymphadenitis
    • lethargy, decreased appetite
    • stiffness, back pain
    • late term abortion (7th-9th week), stillbirth
    • vaginal discharge
    • weak puppies that die soon after birth
    • Males: abnormal sperm. epididymitis, scrotal edema, orchitis, testicular atrophy
  10. Describe the laboratory diagnosis of B canis.
    • [able to Dx 1-4 weeks after infection]
    • Serology: Rapid slide agglutination, indirect fluorescent antibody, AGID, ELISA
    • Culture and ID
    • PCR
  11. Describe signs of B canis in humans.
    • may be asymptomatic
    • may be acute febrile illness with spontaneous recovery, waxing and waning
    • arthritis, spondylitis
    • chronic fatigure
    • epididymo-orchitis
  12. Describe prevention and control of B canis.
    • [no vaccine exists]
    • antimicrobials often not effective- strongly discouraged
    • spay and neuter
    • PPE- suspect cases, during whelping, contact with vaginal secretions
    • caution lab workers when culturing
    • readily killed by most disinfectants
  13. What is the suggested surveillance program for kennels and breeding programs?
    • 2 negative tests 8 weeks apart before introducing a new dog
    • periodic screening of breeding pairs, dogs returning after leaving kennel, males used for semen collection
    • test all dogs >6 months old at least once a year
    • remove infected dogs after screening test and confirmatory test (one test to screen, select a different test to confirm)
  14. What are the regulations in Ohio for licensed high volume dog breeders?
    ALL must have B canis monitoring plan approved by the ODA
  15. Who can test a dog for B canis?
    • only licensed and accredited DVM or licensed RVT under the DIRECT supervision of a DVM can draw the test samples and interpret the results
    • Animal tested must have permanent ID- microchip, tattoo, ear tag, or neck chain with official tag
    • ALL results (positive or negative) must be reported to the ODA within 7 days
Card Set
PrevMed3- B canis
vetmed prevmed3