Chapter 11 Study Guide

  1. What are some properties of muscle?
    responsiveness, conductivity, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity
  2. What are transverse tubules? What do they carry?
    Are extensions/infoldings of the sarcolemma that penetrate the cell, they carry electric currents
  3. What does sarcoplasm contain?
    myofibrils, glycogen, myoglobin
  4. Is the sarcoplasmic reticulum a modified endoplasmic reticulum?
    yes, stores calcium
  5. What do satellite cells do?
    multiply to produce small number of new myofibers
  6. What does calcium bind to in skeletal muscle? What protein?
    Binds to thin filaments on protein troponin
  7. What is calmodulin?
    protein in smooth muscle that binds protein
  8. What is the function of calsequestrin?
    binds calcium in skeletal muscle
  9. Thick filaments are composed of what protein?
  10. How about thing filaments?
    fibrous actin
  11. What is the function of the troponin-tropomyosin complex? What does it accomplish?
    regulates skeletal contraction, provides binding sites for actin and myosin
  12. What does calmodulin activate?
    regulated kinases
  13. What are titin elastic filaments? What do they do?
    huge spiny protein that runs through core of each thick filament, keeps thick and thin filaments aligned, resists overstretching, and help the cell to recoil to resting length
  14. What holds tension in smooth muscle cells?
    intermediate filaments
  15. Know the sarcomere well. Know what is the A band, I band H band.
    • A band: thick filaments, Myosin
    • I band: thin filaments, Actin
    • H band: disappears when contracted
  16. When a muscle contracts, what happens at the sarcomere level?
    z discs come together and H/I bands disappear
  17. Know the NMJ well?
    is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
  18. What is a motor unit?
    the motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innovates
  19. What is the motor end plate? Is it a part of the NMJ that contains AcH receptors?
    a modification of the plasma membrane of the muscle, yes
  20. What does tetanus cause? What kind of paralysis?
    causes septic paralysis
  21. What about curare?
    flaccid paralysis
  22. Know the neurotransmitter that is exocytosed in the NMJ when a nerve impulse arrives?
  23. What is a characteristic of rigor mortis? Is ATP needed for relaxation? Where does the calcium come from?
    body stiffens, sarcoplasmic reticulum deteriorates and releases calcium/activates myosin-actin and muscle contractions, yes, SR
  24. Know about the muscle twitch. When is the latent period?
    is delay between stimulus and onset of twitch
  25. Know about tetanus and complete tetanus?
    tetanus: there are relaxation periods between contractions, complete tetanus: there are no relaxation periods
  26. What is an isometric contraction? Is there a change in length or tension?
    develops tension without changing length
  27. What is an isotonic contraction? What types are there and what characterizes each type?
    concentric contraction: tension development while shortening, eccentric contraction
  28. What is produced during anaerobic respiration that leads to muscle pain or myalgia and inability to go on exercising at that rate?
    lactic acid
  29. What molecules are involved in the phosphagen system?
    creatine phosphate/ADP
  30. What is the function of myoglobin?
    provides oxygen to the muscle
  31. Know aerobic respiration and know that it supplies 36ATP per glucose molecule?
    36 ATP per glucose molecule
  32. What are fast twitch muscle rich in as far as enzymes are concerned? What two system?
    glycogen, phosphagen
  33. Know the definition of motor end plate?
    depression of the sarcolemma at the NMJ that receives the muscle fiber
  34. What must ATP bind to in order for a muscle fiber to contract?
    bind to myosin head
  35. Do skeletal muscles have t-tubules? How about smooth muscle?
    Yes, no
  36. What kind of cell to cell junctions does smooth muscle have?
    gap junctions
  37. What is oxygen debt?
    heavy breathing after loss of oxygen
  38. Which organelle grows in number in resposne to endurance training?
  39. What kind of muscle receive calcium from the ECF?
    smooth/cardiac muscle
  40. Know myasthenia gravis, and muscular dystrophy. Know the mechanism of the pathology?
    myasthenia gravis attackes AcH receptors, muscular dystrophy lacks distophyn
  41. This is a thin sleeve of loos connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber?
  42. This is a thicker connective tissue sheath that wraps muscle fibers together in bundles called fasicles?
  43. This is a fibrous sheath that surrounds the entire muscle?
  44. This is a sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring, muscles or muscle groups from each other and from subcutaneous tissue?
  45. The gap is bridged by a fibrous band or sheet?
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Chapter 11 Study Guide