Family Development Ch9

  1. in Europe, the concept of childhood as different from adulthood did not emerge until about the
    seventeenth century.
  2. Today we regard children as needing
    • special training,
    • guidance,
    • and care.
  3. married couples comprise fewer than ___________of families with a joint child under age 18.
    two-thirds (61.4%)
  4. Single-mother families represent more than one-quarter (25.9%)______ of parenting family groups.
    two-thirds (61.4%)
  5. The remaining parental family groups include
    • single fathers,
    • unmarried cohabiting couplesand grandparent families.
  6. According to Census Bureau definitions, a single parent can be either cohabiting or not.
    • a person’s having children with more than one partner (see Chapter 8)
    • multipartnered fertility
  7. can mean that a father resides, perhaps temporarily, with one or more of his children but not with others
    multipartnered fertility
  8. the parenting situations should be understood as
    fluid or changeable.
  9. Regardless of their living arrangements, parents face
    questions that would not have been imagined several decades ago
  10. parents now have more ___________and are likely to have had some exposure to __________about child development and child-raising techniques.
    • education
    • formal knowledge
  11. Many fathers are more _____________than several decades ago.
    emotionally involved
  12. Despite media attention to street crime, fewer children are exposed to ___________today than twenty years ago.
    violent crimes
  13. Cell phones and social media allow parents and children to keep in virtually continual contact and make being in touch with other family members…
    far more likely than a generation ago.
  14. The Internet offers information for parents dealing with…
    just about any situation.
  15. Raising a child with disabilities reminds us that parents and children can evidence
    resilience, which is enhanced by strong familial bonds.
  16. Sometimes parents ____________when outcomes for their children are not what they would have wanted.
    blame themselves
  17. children can be remarkably resilient: Children and adults can demonstrate the
    capacity to recover from adverse situations and events
  18. There is evidence that ______________________can generate a resilient child.
    one caring, conscientious adult
  19. the family ecology perspective leads us to look at
    ways that society challenges parents today.
  20. six societal features that make parenting difficult:
    • juggling work and family demands
    • pluralistic society with conflicting values
    • several influences on children
    • pressure to parent correctly can be overwhelming
    • Additionally caring for their own elderly parents
    • Authority is questioned while being responsible for raising “good” children.
  21. 1 societal feature that makes parenting difficult is that: the parenting role conflicts with the
    working role,
  22. another societal feature that makes parenting difficult is that: parents employers typically
    place work demands first.
  23. parents worry about juggling ___________________and wish they had_______________.
    • work and family demands
    • more time with their children
  24. Influences on children include
    • schools,
    • peers,
    • television,
    • movies,
    • music,
    • and the Internet.
  25. Some parents want their children to experience _____________school settings.
    socially diverse
  26. Concerns about outside influences may be greater for
    immigrant parents whose values differ from some that they encounter in the United States
  27. 3 parents influence their children’s
    • health,
    • weight,
    • eating habits,
    • intellectual abilities,
    • behaviors,
    • and self-esteem.
  28. Although much parenting advice is useful,
    the emphasis on how parents influence their children can be overwhelming.
  29. 4 parents are often sandwiched between
    simultaneously caring for children and elderly parents.
  30. Although caregiving can increase life satisfaction, stress builds as family members juggle
    • employment,
    • housework,
    • child care,
    • and parent care.
  31. 5 Over the past fifty years, parenting has become one lifestyle choice among many, and society-wide support has
    diminished for the child-raising role, once taken for granted as central.
  32. as a declining proportion of Americans is raising children, some communities show less willingness to
    support public schools
  33. the state may intervene in parental decisions about
    • schooling,
    • discipline and punishment,
    • medical care,
    • and children’s safety as automobile passengers.
  34. Immigrant parents from cultures that espouse parenting practices
    that are illegal or discouraged in the United States face difficulties
  35. parents, especially when employed, are considerably more
    stressed than nonparents.
  36. As we saw in Chapters 6 and 7, considerable research shows that growing up with married parents is statistically related to____________ Researchers attribute much of this finding to
    • better child outcome.
    • stress.
  37. Rather than family structure itself, ___________may account for divergent child outcomes.
  38. However, being raised in a supportive family is s stresses that are peculiar to family forms other than marriage tatistically related to more desirable outcomes for children, regardless of family structure.
  39. Per____________, parental stress—from job demands, financial worries, concerns about neighborhood safety, feeling stigmatized due to living in a negatively stereotyped family form, or race/ethnic discrimination—causes parental frustration, anger, and depression, increasing the likelihood of household conflict.
    The stress model of parental effectiveness
  40. _____________and___________, in turn, lead to poorer parenting practices—inconsistent discipline, limited parental warmth or involvement, and lower levels of parent-child trust and communication.
    • Parental depression
    • household conflict
  41. Having __________diminishes adverse relationships.
    social support
  42. _______________________job or educational demands, financial difficulties, concerns about neighborhood safety, or feeling stigmatized because of racial/ethnic discrimination or negative stereotyping associated with nonmarital family forms.
    Parents might feel stressed due to
  43. Increased parental depression and household conflict result in diminished
    use of positive parenting practices.
  44. Meanwhile, higher levels of______________________—due to high levels of family cohesion, private safety nets, or policies and programs that support parents—are positively related to effective parenting practices, hence to positive child outcomes.
    Parents might feel stressed due to
  45. new mothers report feeling
  46. Employed mothers of infants, especially those who have jobs with inflexible hours and little opportunity for advancement, are
    more likely to feel stressed.
  47. the fact that a baby cries a lot does not necessarily mean
    that she or he is receiving the wrong kind of care.
  48. ____________responding positively to new foods, people, and situations, and transmitting consistent cues (such as tired cry or hungry cry).
    “easy,” babies
  49. ____________ have irregular sleeping or eating habits, adapt slowly to new situations, and may cry for extended periods for no apparent reason.
    “difficult” infants
  50. some studies show that women who are more pleased about their pregnancy are less likely later to
    view parenting as burdensome.
  51. Becoming a parent typically involves what one researcher has called
    the paradox of parenting:
  52. New parents feel overwhelmed, but the motivation to overcome their stress and do their best proceeds from the stressor itself—the child as a source of love, joy, and satisfaction.
    the paradox of parenting:
  53. , the transition to parenthood means less time spent relaxing together and declines in their
    emotional and sexual relationship
  54. After the arrival of a baby, employed mothers who have established fairly egalitarian relationships with their husbands may
    • find their role becoming more traditional,
    • particularly if they quit working to become full-time homemakers.
  55. employed parents face the challenge of finding
    quality child care.
  56. Couples who had been ____________________________may find the transition more difficult.
    more focused on the romantic quality of their relationship
  57. The general conclusion drawn from research organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is that children in nonrelative quality day care may actually benefit in terms of _____________________when compared with low-income children cared for by their parents.
    cognitive and linguistic skills
  58. in general , ___________________________________are more important in impacting children’s adjustment than time spent in day care.
    • family background factors,
    • parenting quality,
    • and parental sensitivity
  59. Favorable outcomes are associated with day care providers talking to children,
    • encouraging them to ask questions and responding,
    • reading to the children,
    • and challenging them to pay attention to others’ feelings and to different ways of thinking
  60. research suggests that children placed in low-quality day care, where the caregivers practice more authoritarian discipline, may be more inclined to
    take impulsive risks later in adolescence.
  61. State laws establish minimal standards, and professional organizations like the American Academy of Pediatrics have
    guidelines for quality child care.
  62. The facility should:
    • state licensed;
    • 2.have a low child-to-staff ratio;
    • 3.have a well-trained staff with warm personalities and little turnover;
    • 4.demonstrate cultural sensitivity and knowledge about the diverse race/ethnic, religious, and social class cultures, as well as the diversity of family forms in this society and potentially at the day care facility;
    • 5.give age-appropriate attention to all the children, including the babies;
    • 6.provide age-appropriate and stimulating activities and play spaces without depending on television watching;
    • 7.use time-outs for discipline rather than physical punishment;
    • 8.welcome parental involvement, even in the form of unannounced visits;
    • 9.accurately respond to questions about practical and financial considerations, such as what happens when the child does not attend as usual because of illness or travel, for example; and
    • 10.provide names of other parents for references.
  63. Partly because it is a source of community support, __________________reduces decline in marital satisfaction after a baby’s birth.
    religious attendance
  64. When a new mother’s expectations are met concerning how much support she will receive or how much her partner will be involved with the baby, the
    transition to parenthood is easier.
  65. _______________, assuming—with self-sacrifice when necessary—major emotional responsibility for her children’s upbringing
    psychological parent
  66. Mothers typically engage in _________________than do fathers, and they take primary responsibility for their children’s upbringing.
    more hands-on parenting
  67. In heterosexual families, adolescents of both genders are likely to name ___________as their closest family confidant
    their mother
  68. mothers often define ______________differently from fathers.
    “quality time”
  69. Fathers are more likely to see quality time with their children as
    being home and available if needed
  70. Mothers more often see quality time as having
    heart-to-heart talks with their children or engaging in child-centered activities.
  71. Some women ____________to accommodate their mothering role.
    quit successful careers
  72. For women of color who have made this choice, an organization called Mocha Moms provides social support.
  73. As mothers, have entered the labor force in greater numbers, many men have been encouraged by the redefinition of male roles to play a larger part in the day-to-day care of their families.
  74. When mothers see fathers as competent parents—and when fathers believe that their child’s mother has confidence in them—fathers are more likely to be highly involved.
  75. Though stressful for virtually all mothers, mothering as a single parent is generally even more so.
  76. In general , research shows that a father’s involvement in his child’s upbringing is related to positive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes from infancy into adolescence.
  77. Father absence has generally been associated with adverse effects on children’s cognitive, moral, and social development.
  78. Incidences of a father’s substance abuse and of father-perpetrated partner violence and child abuse remind us that encouraging father contact is not always best for children.
  79. social fathers (nonbiological fathers in the role of father, such as stepfathers) do not seem to improve adolescents’ outcomes when compared with living in a single-mother householda mother’s male relatives—for example, the child’s uncle or grandfather—may be better and more reliable parent figures than a romantic partner.
  80. research does show that, compared to growing up in a single-mother home, younger children benefit economically from living with a social father, if he shares his financial resources with the family.
  81. Children’s interaction with fathers often differs from that with their mothers; fathers more typically play with or engage in leisure activities with their children than do mothers Better educated fathers with more satisfying jobs showed higher levels of parental engagement.
  82. Experiencing high levels of workplace stressors, including low levels of employee self-direction, adds to fathers’ stress, resulting in less effective parenting.
  83. Others have wives who earn more than they could and question sending their children to day care when the father could stay home.
  84. Despite gender role changes, couples with breadwinning mothers and full-time caregiver fathers continue to be viewed as norm violators.
  85. Compared to mothers, the proportion of fathers who serve as the principal parent is dramatically small.
  86. Among families with children under age 18, about 5% are single-father families—5% for blacks, Hispanics, and nonHispanic whites, and 3% for Asians.
  87. The majority of single fathers care for just one child, but some are parenting three or more.
  88. ____________ are biological or, much less often, adoptive fathers who do not live with one or more of their children
    Nonresident fathers
  89. Due to ____________fatherhood, a father may be living with one or more of his biological children but be “___________” with regard to others
    • Multipartnered
    • nonresident
  90. Then, too, a nonresident father may be serving as a social father to one or more children whom he did not conceive, usually because he
    lives with a woman who had at least one child from a previous relationship
  91. Research shows that, in fact, “cooperative co-parenting
    does not occur in most nonresident father families “
  92. Two studies of nonresident fathers who had previously been arrested for drug problems found that
    their criminal behavior and substance use sometimes declined after the birth of their baby, and many men saw their children daily, several times a week, or weekly.
  93. Indeed, most nonresident fathers maintain some presence in their children’s lives and
    provide them with various kinds of practical support, at least while the children are young.
  94. Some economically disadvantaged fathers take on significant child care responsibility as
    their contribution to the family’s well-being
  95. Researchers have found that whether a nonresident father is involved depends on his
    • employment status,
    • age,
    • education,
    • religious participation,
    • and substance abuse history as well as on his
    • family background.
  96. One recent study shows that a nonresident father is more involved when
    his child is male.
  97. In addition, a nonresident father’s involvement largely depends on his
    • relationship with his child’s mother
    • and, to a lesser extent, her extended family.
  98. He tends to be more highly involved when his relationship with his child’s mother is generally without conflict and when his
    co-parenting relationship is bolstered by social support
  99. Involvement is enhanced when the father has been involved
    prenatally, possibly because he assumes an identity as father during the prenatal period.
  100. given limited resources, involvement of nonresident fathers typically
    • declines over their child’s life time,
    • especially for daughters
  101. Many researchers encourage policy support for these “______________,” especially in communities where father absence is commonplace
    fragile families
  102. Preschool children need opportunities to
    • practice motor development as well as
    • wide exposure to language, especially when people talk directly to them.
  103. It’s important for parents to remember
    “the obvious fact that most adolescents make it to adulthood relatively unscathed and prepared to accept and assume adult roles “
  104. Regardless of age, children have been shown to benefit from an
    authoritative parenting style.
  105. Parents gradually establish a _________—a general manner of relating to and disciplining their children.
    parenting style
  106. Parenting styles combine two dimensions—
    • parental warmth and
    • parental expectations—coupled with monitoring of their children.
  107. Grandparents’ raising grandchildren is characterized by____________.
    • ambivalence
    • Unsure whether or when their grandchildren will return to the parental home, grandparents may “learn a … stance of detachment to cope with the shifts they are sure to experience and probably even applaud “
  108. When parental rights are not terminated, grandparents who are responsible for the children in their care
    lack legal rights over them
  109. In a qualitative study with white, black, and mixed-race children being raised by grandparents, some children
    hoped for reunification with their parents, but the majority had accepted their situations
  110. grandparent’s living in the home of a poor single mother is advantageous in as much as it adds income,
    from Social Security benefits, for example.
  111. In addition, researchers and social worker’s generally maintain that grandparents provide stability, family cohesiveness, and solidarity while often enhancing young children’s cognitive development.
  112. Grandmothers have been found to be most
    sensitive and beneficial to infants.
  113. Research on the responses and feelings of adults who were raised by their grandparents shows that some adult children were
    grateful and felt a strong bond with their grandmothers whereas others evidenced distance and distrust.
  114. Social service agencies have initiated ________________________________for grand families.
    educational and coping programs
  115. The National Center on Grand families promotes awareness of grand families and gives
    advice on how to help grandparents meet their various needs.
  116. Children benefit from parents’ emotional support and practical guidance throughout their
    twenties and after.
  117. As grown children make the transition to adult roles, parent-child relations often grow
    closer and less conflicted.
  118. At the same time, both parents and young adults may be angry or depressed over student loans due to rising
    college costs, lingering childhood issues, or difficulties with assuming adult roles.
  119. Meanwhile, concerns over the young adult’s delayed transition to adulthood can cause
    parental ambivalence and parent-child conflict, and parents who see their grown children as needing too much support report poorer life satisfaction when compared with another parent.
  120. A significant majority of higher-SES parents
    lend or give their children money—
  121. One interesting study found that parents tend to provide money not only to their ________but also to their most __________children, the latter in anticipation of_________________.
    • Neediest
    • successful
    • help from the child as the parent grows older
  122. recession, unemployment, and underemployment, along with a decline in affordable housing, make
    launching oneself into independent adulthood especially difficult.
  123. detailed residence-sharing agreements are available on
    the Internet, some for sale.
  124. Although a residence-sharing agreement can help temporarily, the goal of the majority of parents is for
    their adult children to move on.
  125. One way to improve parenting would be to encourage more research attention to
    some relatively neglected topics.
  126. Neglected topics of research include
    • siblings, -parent’s differential treatment of them
    • and how the denial of legal marriage for same-sex couples affects parenting.
  127. Good parenting involves having adequate
    • economic resources,
    • being involved with the child,
    • using supportive communication and having support from family and/or friends,
    • along with workplace and broader social policies that bolster all families.
  128. more supportive family communication involvement in a child’s life and school provide
    safety nets
  129. Safety net is
    • support from family or friends
    • adequate economic resources
    • workplace policies that facilitate a healthy work
  130. A safety net helps
    • family balance
    • support parenting
  131. safe and healthy neighborhoods that encourage _________ bolster society wide policies
    • positive parenting,
    • school achievement,
    • and reciprocal social support
  132. Over the past ________, many national organizations have emerged to help parents.
    several decades
  133. Thomas Gordon’s PET stands for
    Parent Effectiveness Training (PET)
  134. Parenting can be difficult today for several reasons, one of which is that
    work and parent roles often conflict.
  135. The family ecology theoretical perspective reminds us that _______, and these factors can place __________ strains on parents.
    • society-wide conditions influence the parent-child relationship
    • emotional and financial
  136. The stress model of effective parenting posits that stressors of various sorts lead to _________, which in turn result in __________ and ultimately in poorer child outcomes.
    • parental depression and household conflict
    • less -positive parenting practices
  137. Although more ______are involved in child care today, ___________are the primary parent in the clear majority of cases and continue to do most day-to-day child care.
    • fathers
    • mothers
  138. Child psychologists prefer the ___________parenting style, although some scholars describe the authoritarian/permissive/authoritative parenting style typology as_______
    • ethnocentric or Eurocentric.
    • authoritative
  139. parenting experiences for individuals result from the intersecting of
    • Family form,
    • gender,
    • socioeconomic class,
    • and race/ethnicity
  140. Higher-SES parents tend to follow the concerted cultivation parenting model, whereas_________ are more likely to adhere to the accomplishment of natural growth model.
    working-class parents
  141. A trend over the past several decades has been for an increasing number of grandparents to
    serve as primary parents, often because of some crisis in the child’s immediate family.
  142. More To have better relationships with their children, parents are encouraged to
    • accept help from others (friends and the community at large as well as professional caregivers),
    • to build and maintain supportive family relationships
    • and to engage in community or civic activism.
  143. Three parenting styles:
    • authoritarian,
    • authoritative,
    • and permissive.
Card Set
Family Development Ch9
Family Development Ch9