Anatomy in Yoga

  1. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body into upper and loser

    • Movement:
    •   Medial rotation or internal rotation towards midline
    •   Lateral rotation or external rotation away from midline
  2. Coronal Plane
    • Divides the body front to back
    • Ventral to dorsal
    • Anterior to posterior

    • Movement:
    •  Adduction - moves extremity towards midline
    •  Adduction - moves extremity away from midline
  3. Saggital Plane
    Divides the body right and left

    • Movement:
    •   Flexion - usually moves extremity forward, except at the knee (backward)
    •   Extension - moves extremity backward
  4. Medial
    Closer to midline of the body
  5. Lateral
    Away from the midline
  6. Proximal
    Closer to the trunk or midline or point of attachment
  7. Distal
    Away from trunk or midline or point of attachment
  8. Inferior
    Below or away from the head
  9. Anterior
    Toward the front of the body
  10. Superior
    Above or toward the head
  11. Superficial
    Toward the skin
  12. Deep
    Inside the body
  13. Posterior
    Toward the back of the body
  14. Dorsal
    On the back of the body
  15. Ventral
    On the front of the body
  16. Femur
    • Thigh bone
    • Largest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the entire human body
  17. Ilium
    Largest and most superior of the 3 hip bones
  18. Ischium
    Lowest and strongest of the 3 hip bones

    • Inferior to the ilium
    • When sitting, body weight is rested on this bone along with the coccyx
  19. Pubis
    Smallest of the 3 hip bones

    • Anterior to the ischium
    • Forms the front of the pelvic and supports organs of generations
  20. Hand & Lower Arm Bones
    • Distal phalanges
    • Medial Phalanges
    • Proximal Phalanges
    • Metacarpals
    • Carpals
    • Radius
    • Ulna
  21. Foot, Ankle and Lower Leg Bones
    • Phalanges
    • Metatarsals
    • Cuneiforms
    • Cuboid
    • Navicular
    • Talus
    • Calcaneus
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
  22. Ball and Socket Joint
    Hip and Shoulder

    • Confers the greatest mobility in all planes
    • Multiaxial joint
  23. Hinge Joint
    Knee, Elbow, Ankle

    • Bones can only move along 1 axis to flex or extend
    • Formed between 2 or mores bones
  24. Intervertebral Joint
    • Between the vertebrae
    • Limited mobility between individual vertebrae but great stability to protect spinal cord
    • Mobility comes from combining the limited movement of individual intervertebral joints as a whole
  25. Joint Congruency
    When the joint surfaces fit together perfectly
  26. Ligament
    • Connective tissues that links one bone to another at the joint
    • Non-contractile
    • Serves to stabilize joint while allowing for mobility
  27. Tendons
    • Attach muscles to bones
    • Mobilizes the joint by transmitting the forces produced by the muscles
  28. Concentric Muscle Contraction
    The muscle shortens while maintaining constant tension through a range of motion
  29. Eccentric Muscle Contraction
    The muscle lengthens while contracting
  30. Isometric Muscle Contraction
    The muscle doesn't shorten but generates tension and bone don't move
  31. Active Static Stretching
    • Contracting the agonist muscle to stretch the target muscle or
    • Relaxing the target muscle and relying on the opposing muscle to initiate the stretch

    • Example:
    •  Contracting the quadriceps in forward fold to stretch the hamstrings
  32. Passive Static Stretching
    Relaxing into a stretch using the force of body weight or and external force to stretch the target muscle
  33. Dynamic Stretching
    Involves repetitive movement of the body into increasingly deeper stretches
  34. Facilitated Stretching
    Involves contracting the target muscle during an active static stretch

    Used to deepen postures
  35. Agonist Muscle
    • The muscle that contracts to produce a joint action
    • The working muscle

    • Examples :
    •   hamstrings when flexing knee
    •   quadriceps when extending knee
  36. Antagonist Muscle
    The muscle that relaxes while the agonist contracts

    • Example:
    •   quadricep when flexing knee
    •   hamstrings when extending knee
  37. Synergist Muscle
    • The muscle that assists and fine tunes the action of the agonist
    • Can be used to produce the same action
  38. Reciprocal Inhibition
    When the central nervous system signals the antagonist muscle to relax when contracting the agonist muscle
  39. Iliopsoas Muscle
    Psoas Muscle
    • The Psoas major & iliacus combined
    • Psoas major - Flex the hip joint
    • Iliacus - Flex and rotate laterally thighs

    Lower back, pelvis, & hip bones are moved

    Asanas: Ustrasana, Trikonasana, lunges, Padangustasana
  40. Gluteus Maximus
    A single muscle divided and attached to proximal femur and proximal tibia

    • Contracting extends and rotates externally the hip, femur
    • Stabilizes straight knee

    Asanas Standing poses, back and forward bends
  41. Gluteus Medius
    Forward of the gluteus maximus which is partially covers it

    • Anterior fibers internally rotate femur and middle fibers abduct the femur (hip)
    • Stabilizes pelvis
    • Posterior fibers may externally rotate thigh

    Asanas: One-legged standing poses, urdhva danurasana, parivrtta trikonasana, all lotus poses
  42. Quadriceps
    • Forms the front of the thigh
    • 4 part muscle
    • Polyarticular - rectus femoris either flexes the hip or extends the knee
    • Monoarticular - Vastus muscles only straighten knee
    • Tendons connected to patella

    Asanas: All poses the extend knee or flex hip, trikonasana, urdhva danurasana
  43. Hamstrings
    Biceps femoris & Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus form this set of muscles

    • Biceps femoris - Flex the straight knee and inwardly rotate the lower leg
    • Semitendinosus & semimembranosus (inner muscle) flex the straight leg and outwardly rotates the lower leg

    Asanas:  Bent knee seated folds & twists, adho mukha svanasana, marichyasana I & III
  44. Femur
    • The thigh bone
    • Largest, heaviest, & strongest bone in the entire human body
  45. Ilium
    Largest & most superior of the 3 bones that join to form the hip/pelvis
  46. Ischium
    • Narrow & inferior to the ilium
    • Lowest and strongest of the hip/pelvic bones
    • When sitting, body weight is rested on this bone along with the coccyx
  47. Pubis
    • Smallest of the hip/pelvic bones
    • Anterior to the ischium
    • Forms the front of the pelvis and support organs of generation
Card Set
Anatomy in Yoga
Anatomy in Yoga