Radiology3- Repro Tract Imaging

  1. What are indications for uterus survey radiographs? (3)
    • confirm enlarged uterus
    • number and approximate age of fetuses
    • fetal viability
  2. Why might you use abdominal compression when taking survey radiographs of the uterus?
    separate colon and bladder from uterine body
  3. What are indications for uterine ultrasound? (4)
    • confirm pregnancy
    • fetal viability/ fetal stress
    • predict parturition date
    • assess cause of mildly enlarged uterus
  4. What is the normal U/S appearance of the uterus? (3)
    • tubular without luminal fluid
    • lacks defined wall layering
    • +/- echogenic line neat lumen during estrus (endometrial edema)
  5. Describe the radiographic appearance of a normal uterus. (4)
    • not normally seen
    • 1cm in diameter
    • body of uterus is between colon and bladder
    • cannot distinguish b/w small intestine
  6. What is the radiographic appearance of the pregnant uterus of a dog (30 days after ov) and of a cat (25-35 days gest)?
    uterine enlargement
  7. When does radiographic fetal mineralization begin in pregnant dogs and cats?
    • dogs: 40 days of gest
    • cats: 36-45 days of gest
  8. What are U/S findings of a pregnant uterus at 25-30 days gestation?
    gestational sac
  9. When can you detect a fetal heartbeat with U/S?
    30 days gest
  10. When can you detect fetal mineralization with U/S?
    40 days gest
  11. What is a normal fetal heart rate?
    1.5-2 times that of the mother (slow fetal HR is an indicator of fetal stress)
  12. What are differentials for generalized uterine enlargement on rads without any mineralization? (7)
    • early pregnancy
    • pseudopregnancy
    • pyometra
    • hydrometra
    • mucometra
    • uterine torsion
    • cystic endometrial hyperplasia
  13. What are differentials for localized uterine enlargement on rads? (5)
    • neoplasia
    • cystic endometrial hyperplasia
    • loculated pyometra, hydrometra, mucometra
    • granuloma
    • abscess
  14. What are differentials for gas in the uterus on rads? (4)
    • fetal death
    • ischemia secondary to torsion
    • emphysematous pyometra
    • iatrogenic
  15. What are radiographic signs of fetal death? (4)
    • malalignment of fetal bones
    • collapse of skull bones
    • uterine gas
    • decreased fetal mineralization
  16. How do normal ovaries appear on rads?
    you don't see normal ovaries on rads
  17. How can you differentiate an ovarian mass from a kidney on radiographs?
    excretory urogram
  18. What are indications for U/S exam of the ovaries? (3)
    • assess parenchyma and follicular structures
    • ovarian mass versus other peritoneal mass
    • ovarian remnant
  19. What is the location of the ovaries (to help you find them with U/S)?
    • ventral and lateral to the caudal pole of each kidney
    • peritoneal (NOT RETROPERITONEAL)
  20. What are differentials for an ovarian mass? (2)
    • neoplasia
    • cyst
    • [if mineralized, consider teratoma or teratocarcinoma]
  21. Describe use for radiographs of the testes.
    • most useful for intra-abdominal testes
    • really nothing to see as far as normally descended testicles
  22. Describe the U/S appearance of normal testes. (2)
    • homogenous echogenicity and echotexture (similar to spleen)
    • epididymus is hypoechoic structure dorsomedial to testicle
  23. What are differentials for an intra-abdominal testicular mass? (2)
    • neoplasia (sertoli cell tumor)
    • testicular torsion
    • [color doppler- torsion will show no blood flow, mass with have blood flow]
  24. What are differentials for symmetrical enlargement of intra-scrotal testes? (4)
    • orchitis
    • torsion
    • hydrocele
    • vascular abnormalities
  25. What are differentials for asymmetrical enlargement of intra-scrotal testes? (5)
    • neoplasia
    • varicocele
    • sperm granuloma
    • hematoma
    • abscess
Card Set
Radiology3- Repro Tract Imaging
vetmed radiology3