What other term is used for GI tract?
- Alimentary canal
- Digest and absorbs food, opens at both ends.
What is purpose of accessory digestive organs?
- Assist in digestion secrete chem.s or mechanically breakdown particles.
- Teeth, tongue, gallbladder, pancrease, liver, salivary glands
What is the intake of food into the mouth?
What is the movement of particles through the alimentary canal, through peristalsis?
What is chewing and mixing food for chemical breakdown and segmentation(rhythmic local constrictions in the stomach)?
What iscatabolation of particles into chemcial building blocks, accomphished by enzymes?
What is the passage of products from the GI lumen to the blood and lymph, through active and passive transport.
What is defication?
Elimination of indigestible products
Segmentation results in movement of food in __ direction(s), mixing the food more effectively, as segments are alternaion empty and full
Regulation of digestion, provoked by ____ and ____ stimuli
-activates or inhibits glands and hormones
-Stretching of organs, changes is osmolarity and pH, presence of substrate, presence of end product of digestion
Regulation of Digestion controlled by __ and ___ factors
-Intrinsic: nerve plexus and hormones
--Short reflex: local control of enteric plexus (gut brain)
--Long reflex: uses the CNS and autonomic nerves
--Hormones from cells in the stomach and small intestines
extrinsic and intrinsic
_____ is a double layer of peritoneum
-Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
-Holds organs in place and stores fat
Mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum
-____for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
-Holds organs in place and stores ___
___ organs lie posterior to the peritoneum
_____ (peritoneal) organs are surrounded by the peritoneum
Termed ___circulation, these are the arteries that branch off the dorsal aorta and are part of the Hepatic Portal System
Vessels collect nutrients for distribution throughout the body; ____during digestion
Takes blood first to the ___for processing
4 tunic of the alimentary canal
- Mucosa-secret,absorb, protect
- Submocosa-coonective tissue with vessels
- Muscularis externa- segmentation and peristalsis
- Serosa-viseral perioneum
Muscularis mucosae: smooth muscle that produces ____movements of mucosa
___: regulate digestive activity with-in the gut; it is local rather than systemic.
-Linked to the ____nervous system by reflex arcs
Forms two intrinsic nerve plexus
-___: regulates glands and smooth muscle of the tunic
-___: control GI tract motility (i.e., segmentation and peristalsis)
Mouth lined with ________ epithelium
_____: median attachment of each lip to the gum
____: recess internal to lips and cheeks, external to teeth and gums
Hard palate: palatine bones and palatine processes of the maxillae
-Slightly corrugated to help create against the tongue
Soft palate: fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle
-Closes off the nasopharynx during ___
-Uvula projects downward from its free edge
-Intrinsic muscles change the ____ of the tongue
-____muscles alter the tongue’s position
____: attachment to the floor of the mouth
1.___—whitish, give the tongue roughness and provide friction
2.___—reddish, scattered over the tongue , house taste buds
3.Circumvallate (vallate)—V-shaped row in back of tongue, house taste buds
4.Foliate—on the lateral aspects of the posterior tongue, house taste buds used in infancy and early childhood
1.Filiform—whitish, give the tongue roughness and provide friction
2.Fungiform—reddish, scattered over the tongue , house taste buds
3.___(vallate)—V-shaped row in back of tongue, house taste buds
4.___—on the lateral aspects of the posterior tongue, house taste buds used in infancy and early childhood
___ salivary glands
-parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
___ (buccal) salivary glands
-scattered in the oral mucosa
-__ the mouth
-aids in ___ formation
-enzymes breakdown ___.
Milk (deciduous, __) and Permanent (__)
Tooth chisel shaped for cutting
Fanglike for tearing teeth
____:decay by bacterial action
____: Plaque buildup causing infection in surrounding tissues
---Destroys periodontal ligament
- Dental caries (cavities)
- Periodontal disease
____ to allow expansion
-Mucous neck cells: Acidic mucous
-____ cells: HCl and intrinsic factor (for B12 absorbtion in SI)
-____ cells: Pepsin (protein digestion)
-Enteroendocrine cells: Hormones to regulate digestion
-Mucous neck cells: Acidic mucous
-Parietal (oxynetic) cells: HCl and intrinsic factor (for B12 absorbtion in SI)
-Chief (zygomatic) cells: Pepsin (protein digestion)
-____cells: Hormones to regulate digestion
Oblique musculature allows food to by churned while _____.
Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases:
1.___(reflex) phase: few minutes prior to food entry
2.Gastric phase: 3–4 hours after food enters the stomach
3.___ phase: brief stimulatory effect as partially digested food enters the duodenum, followed by inhibitory effects (enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones)
____: The enzymatic breakdown of food molecules, as there is the addition of water in breaking the molecular bonds
nAbsorbed in the form of ____.
nBegins with salivary amylase, continues with ____.
nSpecific enzymes for sugars, ending with –ase ending: Lactose = Lactase, Maltose = Maltase
- pancreatic amylase
nAbsorbed as amino acid ____>
nBegins with conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin in stomach
______ splits carboxyl group
_____ splits amino group
____: Couple with Bile Salts (lecithin) to form micelles (phospolipid bilayer). Enter the lacteals of the lymphatic system to enter the blood