Digestive System

  1. What other term is used for GI tract? 
    Function?
    • Alimentary canal
    • Digest and absorbs food, opens at both ends.
  2. What is purpose of accessory digestive organs?
    • Assist in digestion secrete chem.s or mechanically breakdown particles. 
    • Teeth, tongue, gallbladder, pancrease, liver, salivary glands
  3. What is the intake of food into the mouth?
    Ingestion
  4. What is the movement of particles through the alimentary canal, through peristalsis?
    Propulsion
  5. What is chewing and mixing food for chemical breakdown and segmentation(rhythmic local constrictions in the stomach)?
    Mechanical digestion
  6. What iscatabolation of particles into chemcial building blocks, accomphished by enzymes?
    Chem. Gigestion
  7. What is the passage of products from the GI lumen to the blood and lymph, through active and passive transport.
    Absorbtion
  8. What is defication?
    Elimination of indigestible products
  9. Segmentation results in movement of food in __ direction(s), mixing the food more effectively, as segments are alternaion empty and full
    Two
  10. Regulation of digestion, provoked by ____ and ____ stimuli

    -activates or inhibits glands and hormones

    -Stretching of organs, changes is osmolarity and pH, presence of substrate, presence of end product of digestion
    • mechanical
    • Chemical
  11. Regulation of Digestion controlled by __ and ___ factors

    -Intrinsic:  nerve plexus and hormones

    --Short reflex:  local control of enteric plexus (gut brain)

    --Long reflex:  uses the CNS and autonomic nerves

    --Hormones from cells in the stomach and small intestines
    extrinsic and intrinsic
  12. _____ is a double layer of peritoneum

    -Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

    -Holds organs in place and stores fat
    Mesentery
  13. Mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum

    -____for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

    -Holds organs in place and stores ___
    • Routes
    • Fat
  14. ___ organs lie posterior to the peritoneum
    Retroperitoneal
  15. _____ (peritoneal) organs are surrounded by the peritoneum
    Intraperitoneal
  16. Termed ___circulation, these are the arteries that branch off the dorsal aorta and are part of the Hepatic Portal System
    Splanchnic
  17. Vessels collect nutrients for distribution throughout the body; ____during digestion
    vasodialate
  18. Takes blood first to the ___for processing
    liver
  19. 4 tunic of the alimentary canal
    • Mucosa-secret,absorb, protect
    • Submocosa-coonective tissue with vessels
    • Muscularis externa- segmentation and peristalsis
    • Serosa-viseral perioneum
  20. Muscularis mucosae: smooth muscle that produces ____movements of mucosa
    local
  21. ___:  regulate digestive activity with-in the gut; it is local rather than systemic. 

    -Linked to the ____nervous system by reflex arcs
    • Enteric neurons
    • autonomic
  22. Forms two intrinsic nerve plexus

    -___:  regulates glands and smooth muscle of the tunic
    -___:  control GI tract motility (i.e., segmentation and peristalsis)
    • Submucosal
    • Myenteric
  23. Mouth lined with ________ epithelium
    Stratified Squamous
  24. _____: median attachment of each lip to the gum
    Labial frenulum
  25. ____: recess internal to lips and cheeks, external to teeth and gums
    Vestibule
  26. Hard palate: palatine bones and palatine processes of the maxillae

    -Slightly corrugated to help create against the tongue
    friction
  27. Soft palate: fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle

    -Closes off the nasopharynx during ___

    -Uvula projects downward from its free edge
    swallowing
  28. -Intrinsic muscles change the ____ of the tongue

    -____muscles alter the tongue’s position
    • shape
    • Extrinsic
  29. ____: attachment to the floor of the mouth
    Lingual frenulum
  30. 1.___—whitish, give the tongue roughness and provide friction

    2.___—reddish, scattered over the tongue , house taste buds

    3.Circumvallate (vallate)—V-shaped row in back of tongue, house taste buds

    4.Foliate—on the lateral aspects of the posterior tongue, house taste buds used in infancy and early childhood
    • Filiform
    • Fungiform
  31. 1.Filiform—whitish, give the tongue roughness and provide friction

    2.Fungiform—reddish, scattered over the tongue , house taste buds

    3.___(vallate)—V-shaped row in back of tongue, house taste buds

    4.___—on the lateral aspects of the posterior tongue, house taste buds used in infancy and early childhood
    Circumvallate

    Foliate
  32. ___ salivary glands

    -parotid, submandibular, and sublingual

    ___ (buccal) salivary glands

    -scattered in the oral mucosa
    Extrinsic

    Intrinsic
  33. Saliva
    -__ the mouth
    -aids in ___ formation
    -enzymes breakdown ___.
    • Cleanses
    • Bolus
    • Starch
  34. Milk (deciduous, __) and Permanent (__)
    • 20
    • 32
  35. Tooth chisel shaped for cutting
    Incisors
  36. Fanglike for tearing teeth
    Canines
  37. ____:decay by bacterial action

    ____: Plaque buildup causing infection in surrounding tissues
    ---Destroys periodontal ligament
    • Dental caries (cavities)
    • Periodontal disease
  38. Stomach sphincters
    Top:
    Bottom:
    • Esophagial 
    • Pyloric
  39. ____ to allow expansion
    Rugae
  40. -Mucous neck cells:  Acidic mucous

    -____ cells:  HCl and intrinsic factor (for B12 absorbtion in SI)

    -____ cells:  Pepsin (protein digestion)

    -Enteroendocrine cells:  Hormones to regulate digestion
    Parietal (oxynetic)

    Chief (zygomatic)
  41. -Mucous neck cells:  Acidic mucous

    -Parietal (oxynetic) cells:  HCl and intrinsic factor (for B12 absorbtion in SI)

    -Chief (zygomatic) cells:  Pepsin (protein digestion)

    -____cells:  Hormones to regulate digestion
    Enteroendocrine
  42. Oblique musculature allows food to by churned while _____.
    being moved
  43. Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases:

    1.___(reflex) phase: few minutes prior to food entry

    2.Gastric phase: 3–4 hours after food enters the stomach

    3.___ phase: brief stimulatory effect as partially digested food enters the duodenum, followed by inhibitory effects (enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones)
    • Cephalic
    • Intestinal
  44. ____: The enzymatic breakdown of food molecules, as there is the addition of water in breaking the molecular bonds
    Hydrolysis
  45. Carbohydrates


    nAbsorbed in the form of ____.

    n

    nBegins with salivary amylase, continues with ____.

    n

    nSpecific enzymes for sugars, ending with –ase ending:  Lactose = Lactase, Maltose = Maltase
    • monosaccarides
    • pancreatic amylase
  46. Proteins


    nAbsorbed as amino acid ____>

    n

    nBegins with conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin in stomach

    n

    ______ splits carboxyl group

    _____ splits amino group
    • monomers
    • nCarboxypeptidase
    • nAminopeptidase
  47. ____: Couple with Bile Salts (lecithin) to form micelles (phospolipid bilayer). Enter the lacteals of the lymphatic system to enter the blood
    Lipids
Author
fjn900
ID
330130
Card Set
Digestive System
Description
Powerpoints
Updated