The Respiratory System

  1. What is the major function of the respiratory system?
    Supply oxygen for aerobic repiration and remove and dispose of carbon dioxide
  2. What are the 5 phases of the res. system?
    • Pulmonary Ventilation
    • External respiration
    • Transport of respiraotry gases
    • Internal respiration
  3. What is pulomnary ventilation?
    Breathing, passively, the movement of air in and out of the lungs
  4. What is external respiration?
    Gas exchange between the blood and air filled chambers of the lungs
  5. WHat is transport of repiratory gases?
    Movement of gases within the body, accomplished using the cardiovascular system
  6. What is internal respiration
    Exchange of gases btwn blood and tissues
  7. What comprises the conduction zone of the respiratory system?
    • Trachea
    • Larynx
    • Bronchi
    • Cleanses, humidies, and warms incoming air
  8. What does the respiratory zone comprise of
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveolar sacs
    • Microscopic Structures
  9. Describe the conduction zone
    Rigid conduits for transport of air to resp. passages
  10. Describe the respiratory zone
    Site of gas exhange
  11. What are the physical barriers in the nose?
    • Vibrissae-nose hairs
    • Olfactory mucosa-receptos for smell
    • Repsiratory mucosa-made of pseudostratidfied columnar epithelia, glblet cells, serous cells:lysozyme and defensins
  12. What are vibrissae?Function?
    • Nose hairs
    • Filter course particles from entering the respiratory pathway
  13. What is the respiratory mucosa made of? (cells)
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelia
  14. Within the repsiraotry mucosa, what cells are present? Thier use?
    • Goblet cells: mucous cells
    • Serous cells: Enzymes
    •        Lysozyme: Antibacterial enzyme
    •        Defensins: Antibiotics that aid in bacterial defense
  15. Once past the epiglottis, you reach the ____
    voice box, larynx
  16. In humans, sound is produced by the opening and closing of the ____, with post-laryngeal filtering for specificity
  17. Loudness depends on the force of the ___ air, increasing vibration within the vocal folds
  18. Glottis wide = ____ tones (frequency, in Hertz (Hz)
  19. Glottis thin = ___ tones (Hz)
  20. Describe the trachea
    Long, flexible tube that directs air to the bronchi
  21. As air enters the respiratory zone, changes in cartilage structure are . . .
    From rings o plates, to none being replaced by elastic fibers (found throughout the respiratroy tree)
  22. As air enters the resp. zone, the epithelium changes . . .
    From ciliated pseudostratified, to columnar, to cuboidal, to squamous in the ducts and sacs
  23. As air enters the resp. zone, the amount of smooth muscle increases . . .
    Allowing constriction of the passageways
  24. What allows for the recoil passively in breathing?
    Elastic fibers
  25. Simple squamous epithemium(Type __) with a fused basal lamina form the ____.
    • 1
    • respiratory membrane.
  26. Type __ cells in respiratory membrane secrete ______ for blood pressure regulation.
    • 1
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme
  27. Cuboidal(Type__) cells secrete _____.
  28. ______ allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized if alveolar ducts collapse by disease or damage
    Alveolar pores
  29. ______ destroy microorganisms and pathogens
    Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
  30. Lungs occupy the entire thoracic cavity except the _____ (surrounding the heart)
    mediastinal septum
  31. P^alv is the pressure in the alveoli, rising and falling with the phases of breathing, but ______ to external P^atm
    always equilibrating
  32. Pressure in the______also fluctuates, but remains about 4mHg below Patm
    pleural cavity (P^ip)
  33. Transpulmonary pressure.Define. 
    Keeps Lungs from ___.
    • P^alv-P^ip
    • Collapsing
  34. Neg. P^ip established on 2 forces.

    Elasticity of chest wall pulls the thorax_____, enlarging the lungs

    Lungs pulled from the thorax by ____.
    • outward
    • Pleura
  35. ____changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equilibrate pressures
  36. Pulmonary Ventilation. Define.
    Volume-Pressure-Flow of gas
  37. What law define the relationship between pressure and volume?
    Bohl's Law
  38. Drag is calculated as . . .
    • F=P/R
    • Flow=Pressure/Resistance
  39. Gas flow inversely related to _____
  40. Large changes in flow can occur with ___ changes in pressure
  41. Gas flow stops at terminal bronchioles, and ____takes over in driving molecule movement
  42. Highest resistance at _____.
    medium-sized bronchi
  43. _____ of smooth muscle changes resistance
  44. Water (polar molecule) has a ___ surface tension
  45. Lining has _____:  detergent-like complex of proteins and lipids produced by type II cells
  46. Molecules more attracted to one another at surfaces than to other types (liquid versus gas) creating ____ in alveolar surface
  47. What interferes with the cohesiveness of water molecules, allowing expansion?
  48. No _____?  Lungs unable to inflate!!
  49. Lung compliance is diminished by
    Fibrosis, blockage of passages, low surfactant, decreased thoracic expansion, etc.
  50. Lungs distensible:  the amount of stretching termed _____.
  51. Compliance
    CL = VL/(P^alv – P^ip)
  52. —___volume (TV):  Air in and out normally (500 ml)
  53. —____ volume :  air forced beyond tidal volume (2100-3200 ml)
    Inspiratory reserve
  54. —____ volume :  air forced out of lungs (1200 ml)
    Expiratory reserve
  55. —____ volume:  air left in lungs, preventing collapse
  56. —____ capacity (IC):  amount that can be inspired after tidal expiration (sum of tidal and inspiratory reserve volumes)
  57. —____ capacity:  amount of air left in the lungs after tidal expiration (combined inspiratory and expiratory volumes)
    Functional residual
  58. —____ capacity:  The total amount of exchangeable air (~4800 ml)
  59. —____capacity:  The sum of all capacities (~6000 ml)
    Total lung
  60. —Dalton’s law of partial pressures

    —The total pressure exerted by a mixture is the ___ of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture

    —Each gasses pressure, or ____, is directly proportional to it’s percentage in the mixture
    • Sum
    • Partial pressure
  61. —Henry’s law

    —In a mixture of gas, each gas will dissolve in the ____ in proportion to its partial pressure

    —The more there is, the greater and faster it will dissolve
  62. According to Dalton’s Law

    —_____ moves out of the blood into the alveoli


    —____ moves out of the alveoli into the blood


    —____ moves out of the blood into the alveoli
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Oxygen
    • Water
  63. External respiration. Define
    O2 and CO2 within the lungs gas exchange
  64. Internal repsiration
    —same gases move in the opposite direction by the same mechanism (diffusion!)
  65. Factors influencing movement of respiratory gases
    —Partial pressure and gas solubility

    —Functional aspects, like matching alveolar ventilation with pulmonary blood perfusion

    —Structural characteristics of the membrane (i.e. thickness)
  66. Note that it takes only about ____ seconds

      for the blood to get oxygenated.

    Thus, blood can flow ___ as fast as normal  and still get oxygenated.
    • 0.25
    • 3X
  67. Oxyhemoglobin

    —Fully or partially saturated ___ groups
  68. Oxyhemoglobin

    —The off-loading of oxygen is not linear, instead being an ____ (the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve)
    S-shaped curve
  69. Oxyhemoglobin

    —Causes full saturation at 70 mmHg, and easily offloads oxygen with small pressure changes
  70. —Several factors influence the offloading of oxygen:
    • —H+ concentration (pH)
    • —PCO2
    • —BGP (2,3-biphosphoglycerate, which binds reversibly to hemoglobin, produced during anaerobic respiration)

    —Increasing these factors decreases Hb’s affinity for oxygen

    —Decreasing these factors increases Hb’s affinity for oxygen
  71. The Bohr effect

    —Increased activity raises the ____ of an area, which shifts offloading of oxygen to these tissues


    —Also under hormonal control (endocrine system), such as thyroxine, epinephrine, growth hormones, and catchecholamines
  72. The Bohr effect

    —In capillaries, ___and ___ being used creating carbon dioxide (increasing H+ (decrease pH), PCO2)


    —____ (decreased pH) weakens hemogloboin-oxygen bond, accelerating oxygen offloading (shifts the curve to the right), a phenomenon termed the Bohr effect


  73. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Nitric Oxide (NO)

    —NO a ____

    —Hb a ____
    • vasodilator
    • vasoconstrictor
  74. Local vessels dilate where gases are unloaded.  WHY?!?
    —NO(nitric oxide) attached to a cystene group and protected from degradation by the iron group in Hb.  Oxyhemoglobin unloads oxygen and NO, aiding in oxygen delivery.  Deoxyhemoglobin then scavenges NO and CO2, and unloads in lungs
  75. CO2 transported 3 ways.
    —Dissolved in plasma (7-10% as CO2)

    —Chemically bound to Hb (~20% as carbaminohemoglobin)

    —As Bicarbonate ion in plasma (~70% converted to HCO3-)

    CO2 + H2O   H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-
  76. —CO2 produced in cells (~200ml/min), _____ as released by the lungs
    the same
  77. What is Carbonic Anhydrase?
    —Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion to carbonic acid (in RBC’s)
  78. —____ ions diffuse from RBC’s to plasma after carbonic anhydrase
  79. After carbonic anhydrase, Chloride ions move from the plasma to RBC’s to counterbalance:  ionic exchange is termed the _____
    chloride shift
  80. What is described as : 

    —The less oxygen in the blood, the more the blood can carry carbon dioxide
    Haldane Effect
  81. If there is an increase in O2 there is less CO2 because deoxyhemoglobin forms _____ and buffers H+ by combining with it.

    Thus, the haldane effects allows for the formation of more bicarboinate ions
  82. Influence of CO2 on blood pH

    —Most important function is that it acts as a ______

    —The ______ system resists shifts in pH by counterbalancing H+ levels
    • bicarbonate reserve
    • carbinic acid-bicarbinate buffer
  83. Neural control of breathing

    —Control from the reticular formations of the _____
    —Medulla forms the ____

    —Pons controls regulates the rhythm and _____ of inspiration and expiration
    • medulla and pons
    • rhythm
    • smooths the transitions
  84. High CO2 stimulates breathing (and vice verse)
  85. Changes in ____ indirectly affects peripheral chemoreceptors, changing the rate of breathing (thus, PO2,  PCO2 , and pH)
    arterial pH
  86. PO2 influences chemoreceptors; high levels diminish CO2 stimulation
  87. —Lung Cancer

    —Squamous cell carcinoma, where?

    —Adenocarcinoma, where?

    —Small cell carcinoma, where?
    • bronchi epithelia
    • peripheral lung areas
    • primary bronchi
  88. What is emphysema?
    Destruction of avelor walls.
Card Set
The Respiratory System