Psychology Midterm 2: Sensation & Perception

  1. sensory pathway
    stimulation--> transduction--> sensation--> perception
  2. bottom up sensory process
    sensory receptor--> brain--> sensory info-->perception
  3. top down sensory process
    • construct perceptions based on previous experiences
    • ex. mind fills in gaps to interpret same figure differently depending on environment
  4. 4 tastes
    • sweet
    • salty
    • sour
    • bitter
    • (omami) msg
  5. transduction
    changing physical stimulus--> neural stimulus
  6. taste transduction
    • 1. saliva dissolves food chemicals-->
    • 2. fungiform papillae-->
    • 3. taste buds--> bud neurons fire AP
  7. taste/gustation stimuli
    chemicals dissolved in saliva
  8. vision stimuli
    photons of light
  9. audition stimuli
    sound waves
  10. touch/somatosensation stimuli
    pressure & temperature on skin
  11. smell/olfaction stimuli
    chemicals in air
  12. Muller
    • doctrine of specific nerve energies- different sensory qualities (sweet/salty) caused by different neural structures (taste bud type)
    • salt taste bud only fires AP for salty food
  13. Gestalt
    • the whole is MORE than the sum of its parts
    • perception > sum of sensations, perception = combination of sensations
  14. synaesthesia
    • mixing up senses
    • "I can hear colors"
  15. differences in taste perception
    • 1. biology (# of fungiform papillae)
    • 2. cultural histories
  16. every sensory system has...
    • 1. peripheral receptors that change environmental energy--> neural energy
    • 2. multiple types of receptors--> enhance range of function
    • 3. individual perception differences
  17. vestibular system
    • sand-like crystals in inner ear shift--> sense of direction & balance
    • stable platform that allows for us to perceive something even when head is tilted
  18. eye
    • cornea & convex lens bend light to retina
    • upside down image
  19. retina
    • inside to outside: ganglion--> bipolar--> rods/cones
    • ganglion/bipolar neurons on inside wire easier to optic nerve
    • perceives in 2D
  20. sensitivity
    • convergence of info into rods (low light)
    • increases chance that ganglion will fire AP
    • many receptors on one ganglion cell
  21. acuity
    • lack of convergence in cones
    • can DISTINGUISH different receptors in different ganglion cells
  22. feature detectors
    • nasty contact lens study- cells stop firing if image does not change
    • problem: vision is more than the sum of features
    • ex. 4 lines = square OR diamond
  23. perceptual organization
    making assumptions when interpreting features to create wholes
  24. Gestalt Principles
    • Cool Cats For SCriPS
    • closure
    • common fate
    • simplicity
    • continuity
    • proximity
    • similarity
  25. closure
    view incomplete as whole
  26. simplicity
    perceive in most simple form
  27. continuity
    group objects moving in same dir/rate
  28. similarity
    group similar objects
  29. proximity
    group object close to each other
  30. common fate
    • group objects moving together
    • ex. arrows on freeway sign
  31. light from above assumption
    light on top, dark on bottom
  32. foreground vs background
    • smaller = figure
    • symmetric = figure
    • lower region/bottom = figure
  33. linear perspective
    converging lines on horizon
  34. texture gradient
    fewer, larger objects close to you
  35. interposition/occlusion
    closer objects in front
  36. relative height in image
    lower objects are closer
  37. light & shadow
    lighter objects are closer & on top
  38. binocular
    stereopsis- brain processes distance difference on left retina vs right retina
  39. illusion of depth/size
    • moon looks small
    • Ames room looks square
Author
kwatanabe20
ID
330057
Card Set
Psychology Midterm 2: Sensation & Perception
Description
Intro to Psychology
Updated