bio gpv

  1. What is an autotroph?  give example
    • organisms capable of manufacturing organic molecules from inorganic raw materials 
    • *produces its own food

    algae, bacteria, some plants
  2. what is a heterotroph.  give example
    • consumer of autotroph
    • cow eats grass for energy
  3. what are the parts of ATP molecule
    • adenine
    • ribose (sugar)
    • phosphate groups
  4. write equation that shows ADP is changed into ATP
  5. write equation that shows how ATP is changed into ADP
    ATP= ADP + P(energy releases for cell use) + ENERGY
  6. Which molecule stores more than 90 times the energy in ATP?  how are these used by cells
  7. How do animal cells store glucose for later?
  8. How do plants store glucose for later?
    as starch
  9. What did Melvin Calvin contribute to photosynthesis
  10. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis
    6 CO2 + 6 H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
  11. What a a pigment?  What is the main pigment used by green plants to absorb energy.
    • colored substance 
    • plant - chlorophyll
  12. two types of chlorophyll?
    A and B
  13. which wavelengths of light are best absorbed by chlorophyll a and b?  which are reflected?
    • absorbed:  red and blue
    • reflected: green and yellow
  14. How are carotenoid pigments different from chlorophyll?
    do not make the plant green. They give flowers their colors
  15. Why do plants have these other pigments besides chlorophyll?
    Plants have other pigments besides chlorphyll because chlorphyll doesn't give flowers their color.
  16. Why do plants looks green?
    The chloroplyll absorbs a lot of red and blue light. It does not absorb much green, so it reflects it away. You see the reflected green light as the green color of many plants.
  17. What is NADP?  
    What does it do?
    How is it changed into NADPH?
  18. Where does the H that ends up in NADPH ultimately come from?
    water h2O
  19. Be able to describe the two sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis
    (light-dependent and Calvin cycle)
    • light dependent - takes light energy and makes a energy storage compound ATP from ADP
    • Calvin cycle - CO2 from atmosphere diffuses into the storm and enters a series of reactions which eventually form glucose
  20. Where are they located and what happens in each?
  21. What is another name of the Calvin Cycle?
    light independent reaction
  22. Which reactions in photosynthesis require light?  Which do not?
    the production of NADP+ and ATP require light. The calvin cycle (the reactions which actually result in the formation of sugar) require NADP+ and ATP, but do not actually require light.
  23. How and where are ATP and NADPH made?
    • 1. light absorption 
    • 2. splitting of water
    • 3. formation of ATP and NADPH

    Made during cellular respiration
  24. what happens to water during the light-reaction?
    the oxygen goes out as waste from the reaction, and the hydrogen goes across the membrane and cause chemiosmosis,
  25. which molecule is given off as a waste gas?
  26. which molecules produced by the light-dependent reaction are used during the Calvin cycle?
    • O2
    • ATP
    • NADPH
  27. what happens during the Calvin Cycle?
    the Calvin cycle is a series of reactions in photosynthetic plants and bacteria that converts carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbohydrate.
  28. Be able to give reactants and products for each of the reactions
    • ATP is energy source 
    • NADPH is the reducing agent
    • =simple sugars  C6H12O6
  29. Where does the carbon and oxygen in glucose ultimately come from?
  30. where does the hydrogen in glucose ultimately come from?
  31. Which factors affect the rate of photosynthesis and how?
    • temperature
    • water
    • carbon dioxide
    • light
  32. main reactants that enter into the light dependent reactions:
    from outside the cell  ____ and ____
    from within the cell _____ and ____
    • outside: light and water
    • inside:  NADP and ADP+P
  33. Identify the main products of the light dependent reactions and what happens to them:
    • ATP
    • NADPH
    • O2 - released into the atmosphere
  34. identify reactants of the light dependent reactions:
    • CO2
    • NADPH
    • ATP
  35. identify the main products of light independent reactions and briefly describe what happens to them.
    • ADP
    • NADP
    • glucose
  36. Where do the light dependent reactions take place
  37. where do the light independent reactions take place?
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bio gpv