Brain and Behavior test 2

  1. What are the three hormones released by the adrenal gland?
    • Cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline
    •             (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
  2. What is the endocrine system?
    Glands that secrete hormones
  3. What is immunosupression?
    Immune system supression 

    Due to stress: directly due to cortisol; stress hormones too high in blood stream, can shut down/effect activeness of immune system over time

    Due to cognitive effects: dampens immune system, more prone to getting sick 

    Mental state has an effect on levels of stress
  4. How does the HPA axis work?
    External stimuli triggers the hypothalamus

    Hypothalamus secretes hormones into Pituitary gland 

    Pituitary gland releases hormones to Adrenal gland

    Adrenal gland releases hormones into the blood stream
  5. What is negative feedback loop?
    When peak hormone level is reached in the blood stream, cortisol sends a signal to the hypothalamus to shut off
  6. What is exaptation
    When a species takes existing components and forms a new function with those components
  7. What is a stressor?
    Anything that triggers mental or physical stress
  8. What is homeostasis?
    Regulation of body temperature/function, keeps body at equilibrium
  9. What is allostasis?
    Homeostasis related to stress and bringing stress levels back to normal
  10. How is negative feedback an example of allostasis?
    Negative feedback regulates stress hormones by turning off the hypo campus when cortisol blood levels are too high
  11. What are peptide ulcers caused by?
    Stress, bacteria
  12. What are peptide ulcers?
    Tears in stomach lining
  13. What are the glucocorticoids?
    Cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline
  14. What is stress immunization?
    Building an immunity to the effects of stress on your body
  15. What did the rat pup study conclude about stress?
    Rat pups were stressed when they were picked up and calmed when the mother licked them. 

    Rat pups who were not licked did not calm down and stayed stressed for much longer after being put down

    Rat pups who were licked after they were picked up learned to not be afraid of being held.
  16. What is epigenetics?
    How DNA code is expressed
  17. How was stress researched in the 1950's?
    Biologically- physicians treated the body like an engine 

    Bioengineers helped contribute to what we know about stress
  18. What was the paradigm shift in the research of stress after the 1950's?
    Stress research began to include psychology 

    If there were no psychological factors involved, studies were not considered valid. 

    Research looked at stress less from a biological perspective and more from the perspective of cognition and response to experiences.
  19. What is the correlation between ulcers and stress in rats?
    More stress= more ulcers
  20. How does social support effect stress?
    People experience stress in different situations: 

    higher stress around strangers but lower stress around family and friends
  21. What is the effect on rats if they have something to chew on?
    Lower levels of stress 

    Lower # of ulcers
  22. Outlets for frustration equal more stress or less stress?
  23. What was the baboon social support study and what did it conclude?
    Tracked cortisol/ulcer correlation 

    Lower ranking baboons experienced more stress than higher ranking baboons. 

    Stability of the hierarchy-more stress when the hierarchy was less stable, less stress when the hierarchy was stable

    Higher # of friends led to a lower level of cortisol

    More social grooming led to lower levels of cortisol
  24. What did the human social support study conclude about stress?
    More friends= lower cortisol levels 

    More social isolation= more active SNS response 

    Social isolation creates 5 times higher risk for cardiovascular disease 

    disconnection from the community= higher stress 

    people in communities of other ethnic groups= higher stress
  25. What were the 2 studies on the predictability of stress in rats and what did they conclude?
    1. Rats were shocked without warning, cortisol levels increased

    When rats were given a warning bell before shock, cortisol levels decreased 

    2. Feeding time was randomized, cortisol levels increased (randomness became the stressor) 

    Less structure = less predictability= higher stress 

    Both: predictability leads to a lower level of stress
  26. What were the 2 human studies on the predictability of stress and what did they conclude?
    1. Dental exams- telling the patient when/how many times the doctors going to drill decreases stress levels 

    2. Military jumping from planes- more training leads to lower stress levels because they are used to it 

    Both: predictability helps us handle stress and lowers stress levels
  27. What was the rat study on control over stress and what did it conclude?
    Rats were shocked 

    When they were given a lever to avoid shocks: their stress decreased and # of ulcers decreased 

    When the lever was removed: stress increased and # of ulcers increased 

    When the lever was returned but didn't work: stress decreased and # of ulcers decreased

    Conclusion: when a control mechanism is introduced, stress goes down whether or not the mechanism works
  28. What was the human study on control over stress and what did it conclude?
    Stress was induced through high noise and levels of cortisol increased 

    Given a button to press to avoid sound: cortisol levels decreased 

    Take button away: cortisol levels increased 

    Return button but button doesn't work: Cortisol levels were decreased 

    Conclusion: Even if the control mechanism doesn't work, cortisol levels will decreased if there is perceived control over a situation
  29. What is adaptation?
    A species ability to change to fit its environment
  30. What is randomness
    Only certain animals in a species are born with the necessary adaptations to survive.
  31. What is mutation?
    When a species DNA changes abnormally (usually to adapt to an environment)
  32. What are primates and when did they first appear on Earth?
    Primates are monkeys and Great Apes. 

    Monkeys: new world and old world 

    Great Apes: orangutans, gorillas, chimps, bonobos

    First appeared: 14 million years ago
  33. What did unicellular organisms have that neurons have today?
    GABA and glutamate

    Pores (Channels) like axon terminals
  34. What has changed in the brain over the last 2 million years?
    higher level motor, visual and language skills, teamwork and other social skills
  35. What are the cognitive requirements of tool making?
    High visual acuity

    High tactile sense

    fine motor coordination
  36. What is the ratchet effect?
    When a species invents something and then continues to improve on that invention 

    (like engineers)
  37. What is the triune brain model?
    • Cortex: advanced cognitive processing 
    •      Neomammalian complex

    • Limbic system: Basic mammalian functions 
    •     Paleomammalian complex 

    • Brain stem: Basic survival instincts 
    •     Oldest part of the brain- reptilian complex
  38. What are the primary aging changes?
    Decrease in motor coordination 

    Change in sleep patterns (less sleep at lower quality) 

    • Cognitive deficits 
    • Lower short term memory 
    • Lower long term memory 
    • Lower visuospatial skills 
    • Lower verbal fluency
  39. What is brain atrophy?
    Breakdown of brain tissue
  40. When does the brain start to atrophy?
    Around age 20-70
  41. Is the metabolism in the brain stable throughout life?
  42. By how much does the brain decrease in size per year?
    .2% until 70 

    .5% 70+
  43. What are the causes of Alzheimers disease?
    • Genetic causes- 
    • Down syndrome
    • genetic markers 

    • Other causes-
    • Parkinson's disease 
    • History of Alcoholism 
    • Serious infection 
    • Brain tumors 
    • Vitamin deficiencies 
    • Metabolic disorders
  44. What are the symptoms of Alzheimers?
    • 1. Behavioral- 
    • Memory deficit (explicit LTM) 
    • Depression 
    • Restlessness
    • Drowsiness
    • Confusion 
    • Decreased appetite 
    • Psychosis 

    • 2. Brain Atrophy- 
    • lower overall volume of cortex 
    • lower volume of hippocampus 

    3. Lower acetylcholine 

    4. Plaque formations= neuronal damage 

    5. Formation of tangles
  45. What happens when the brain produces too much amyloid plaque?
    Plaque begins to accumulate in the synapse and blocks neuronal transmission 

    Neuron dies
  46. How are tangles formed?
    Tau proteins build up inside the neuron 

    The clumps begin to unravel the microtubules 

    microtubules tangle= the nueron cannot communicate with itself 

    Neuron starts to malfunction
  47. What are some treatments for Alzheimers?
    No real cure 

    • 1. Current attempts 
    • boosting acetylcholine levels 
    • curcumin- lowers amyloid plaque and tau damage 

    • 2. Future possibilites
    • Substance to bind amyloid plaque (render it uneffective) 
    • Lower amyloid plaque production
Card Set
Brain and Behavior test 2
Brain and behavior exam 2