1. Absorption
    process by which drugs are transferred from the site of entry into the body to the bloodstream
  2. Adverse drug effect
    Undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effect are known as
  3. Allergic Effect
    an immune system response that occurs when the body interprets the drug administered as a foreign substance and forms antibodies against the drug.
  4. Ampule
    glass flask containing a single dose of medication for parenteral administration
  5. Anaphylactic reaction
    severe reaction occurring immediately after exposure to a drug; characterized by respiratory distress and vascular collapse
  6. Anaphylaxis
    life threatening and results in respiratory distress, sudden severe bronchospasm, and cardiovascular collapse.
  7. Antagonistic effect
    combined effect of two or more drugs that produces less than the effect of each drug alone
  8. Cumulative effect
    condition that occurs when the body cannot metabolize a drug before additional doses are administered
  9. Distribution
    movement of drugs by the circulatory system to the site of action
  10. Drug tolerance
    tendency of the body to become accustomed to a drug over time; larger doses are required to produce the desired effects
  11. Excretion
    removal of a drug from the body
  12. Generic name
    name assigned by the manufacturer who first develops a drug; it is often derived from the chemical name
  13. Half-life
    the amount of time it takes for half a dose of a drug to be eliminated from the body
  14. Idiosyncratic effect
    unusual, unexpected response to a drug that may manifest itself by over response, under response, or response different from the expected outcome
  15. Inhalation
    (1) act of breathing in; synonym for inspiration; (2) administration of a drug in solution via the respiratory tract
  16. Intradermal injection
    injection placed just below the epidermis
  17. Intramuscular (IM) injection
    an injection into deep muscle tissue, usually of the buttock, thigh, or upper arm
  18. Intravenous (IV) route
    injection of a solution into the vein
  19. Metabolism
    (1) chemical changes in the body by which energy is provided; (2) breakdown of a drug to an inactive form; also referred to as biotransformation
  20. Mini-infusion pump
    (syringe pump) for intermittent infusion is battery operated and allows medication mixed in a syringe to be connected to the primary line and delivered by mechanical pressure applied to the syringe plunger
  21. Official name
    name by which a drug is identified in official publications
  22. Parenteral
    outside of intestines or alimentary canal; popularly used to refer to injection routes
  23. Peak level
    highest plasma concentration of a drug
  24. Pharmacology
    study of actions of chemicals on living organisms
  25. Piggyback delivery system
    requires the intermittent or additive solution to be placed higher than the primary solution container
  26. Placebo
    an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it
  27. P.R.N order
    as needed
  28. Stat order
    is a single order, but it is carried out immediately.
  29. Subcutaneous injection
    injection into the subcutaneous tissue that lies between the epidermis and the muscle
  30. Synergistic effect
    combined effect of two or more drugs is greater than the effect of each drug alone
  31. Teratogenic
    known to have potential to cause developmental defects in the embryo or fetus
  32. Therapeutic range
    that concentration of drug in the blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing toxicity
  33. Topical application
    application of a substance directly to a body surface
  34. Trade name
    drug name selected and trademarked by the company marketing the drug; also called brand name or proprietary name
  35. Trough level
    the point when a drug is at its lowest concentration
  36. Vial
    glass bottle with self-sealing stopper through which medication is removed; may be single or multiple dose
  37. Volume-control Administration Set
    for intermittent intravenous infusion. The medication is diluted with a small amount of solution and administered through the patient's intravenous line
  38. Z-track technique
    zigzag technique used to administer medications intramuscularly
  39. Pure Food and Drug Act
    1906, designated the US Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary as offocial standards of drugs and empowered the federal government to enforce these standards
  40. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
    Pure Food and Drug Act updated 1938, prohibiting adulterated or mislabeled drugs from being made available
  41. FDA- Food and Drug Administration
    • enforces the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
    • extensive testing of new drugs required before placed in the market
  42. Amendment to Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
    distinguishes prescription drugs to non prescription drugs OTC and provided instructions on how to dispense prescription drugs.
  43. Kefauver-Harris Act Amendment
    1962, adverse reactions and contradictions to be included in drug literature
  44. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
    • 1970, regulates distribution of narcotics and other drugs of abuse.
    • such drugs catergorized by therapeutic usefulness and potential for abuse
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