Molecules that appear in elementary reactions but not in the overall reaction are called ________. The slowest step in any proposed mechanism is called the _____-________ step
- rate-determining step
A specific nucleus with a given atomic number and mass number is called a ______. The ______ ______ is the difference between the mass of an isotope and its mass number.
The ______ _____ is the energy that holds a nucleus together, equal to the mass defect of the nucleus
Nuclear radiation is sometimes called ______ _______, because it is energetic enough to eject electrons from atoms
_________ is the most commonly use medical radionuclide Emits detectable gamma rays. ________ is used for the gamma knife. PET (_____ _____ _____) uses ____, much more detailed than x-rays and extensively used to measure ______ ______
- Technetium 99m
- positron emmision tomography
- brain activity
______ ______ energy, Ebind, is the energy released when protons and neutrons come together to form a nucleus
Nuclear binding energy
bombarding heavy atoms with neutrons can split atoms into fragments, releasing huge amounts of energy
______ ______ is the minimum mass of fissionable material needed to maintain a nuclear chain reaction
_______ _____ is an amount of fissionable material that is not enough to sustain a nuclear chain reaction
Name that nuke:
- Little boy: gun-type
- Fat man: implosion-type
- Tsar bomba: hydrogen bomb **most powerful
Exposive fission reactions ______ occur in a nuclear reactor. Why?
- fuel is not dense enough
Fuel of explosive fission reactions is shaped into ______ and inserted into a ______, a material that slows down the neutrons as they pass between the fuel ____.
Example of nuclear reactor