Chapter 2

  1. Meta-Analysis
    combine the result of several different studies on a similar topic in order to establish the strenght of an effect
  2. Theory
    broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain certain observations
  3. Varible
    anything that can change
  4. Operational Definition
    Objective Description of how a research variable is going to be measure and observed
  5. Hypothesis
    idea that can be arrived a logically from a theory
  6. Population
    entire group in which investigators wants to draw conclusions
  7. Sample
    subset of the population chosen by the investigator for study
  8. Random Sample
    gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected
  9. Naturalist Observation
    observation of behavior in the real-world setting with no effort made to manipulate or control the situation
  10. Standardized Test
    require people to answer a series of written or oral questions
  11. Case Study
    in-depth look at a single individual, known as case history
  12. Correlational Research
    research strategy that identify the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together
  13. 3rd Variable Problem
    extraneous variable that has not been measured
  14. Longitudinal Design
    systematic observation that involves obtaining measure of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time
  15. Experiment
    one or more variables believed to influence the behavior
  16. Random Asignment
    research groups by chance
  17. Independent Variable
    manipulated experimental factor
  18. Dependant Varible
    factor that can change the experiment in response to change
  19. Experimental Group
    research study whose experiment is manipulated ( Independent )
  20. Control Group
    comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor
  21. Validity
    soundness of the conclusion we draw from an experiment
  22. Ecological Validity
    extent to which an experimental design is representative of the real world issues it is supposed to address
  23. Internal Validity
    extent to which changes in dependant variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
  24. Experimenter Bias
    The influence of the experimenters own expectations on the outcome of the research
  25. Research Participants Bias
    influence of the research participants expectations on their behavior within an experiment
  26. Placebo
    harmless inert substance that may be given to participants
  27. Placebo Effect
    Situation where participants expectations become an experimental outcome
  28. Double-Blinded Experiment
    conducted so that neither the experiment no the participants are aware of which the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until after the result are calculated
  29. Descriptive Set
    used to describe and summarize sets of all data in a meaningful way
  30. Mean
    add all #'s and divide by numbers
  31. Median
    middle #
  32. Range
    The difference between the highest and lowest score
  33. Standard Deviation
    statical measure of variability that involves how much the scores vary
  34. Inferential Statistics
    mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether data sufficiently support or confirm a research hypothesis
  35. Ethical Gloss
    ethnic label
Card Set
Chapter 2
Psychology's Scientific Method