Exam 3 - Endocrine

  1. what is the term that means that the output signal has reveres the condition of the original stimulus?
    negative feedback
  2. what are the chemical messengers released in response to a change in the body's internal environment?
  3. Name the two posterior hormones:
    • ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)
    • Oxytocin
  4. This pituitary gland secretes 6 hormones (GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, Prolactin). Anterior or posterior pituitary?
    anterior pituitary
  5. Which hormones of the endocrine system are most clinically used?
    • growth hormone
    • antidiurectic hormone
  6. Name the disorders related to HYPERpituitarism
    • gigantism
    • acromegaly
    • SIADH
  7. Name the disorders related to HYPOpituitarism
    • dwarfism
    • diabetes insipidus
  8. what is the name of the drug that is a hormone antagonist (stops GH)?
    Parlodel (bromocriptine)
  9. What is Diabetes Insipidus?
    • Lack of ADH
    • Not related to DM - it mimics symptoms
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
    • dehydration
    • dilute urine
  10. What are the drugs used for treatment of Diabetes Insipidus (DI)?
    • desmopressin (DDAVP)
    • vasopressing (Pitressin)
    • nasal, oral, IV, SQ
  11. Name the nursing interventions of desmopressin/vasopressin therapy
    • monitor I&O, dehydration
    • monitor electrolytes, fluids
    • check urine specific gravity
    • care must be taken with CAD (coronary artery disease)
    • excessive fluid retention

    *if nephrogenic (kidney) then it's not DI and tx won't work
  12. what is the mechanism of action of vasopressin?
    • causes renal collecting tubules to increase permeability to water
    • therefore enhances water reabsorption
  13. adverse effects of vasopressin?
    • angina, MI in CAD
    • excessive fluid retention = water intoxication = death
  14. what is SIADH?
    • syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
    • body retains water and electrolytes in the blood
    • symptoms of hyponatremia because so much fluid on board
  15. what are s/s of SIADH?
    • vomiting, irritability, HA
    • combativeness, confusion, hallucinations
    • seizures, stupor, coma
    • weight gan w/o edema
    • decreased urine output, increased concentration
  16. what is the normal sodium range?
    135-145 mEq
  17. this hormone controls growth of bones and muscles
    growth hormone
  18. where is growth hormone produced?
    pituitary (anterior)
  19. this hormone increased reabsorption of water in kidneys
    anti-diuretic hormone
  20. where is ADH produced?
    pituitary (posterior)
  21. this hormone controls the rate of metabolism and rate that glucose is used up in respiration, and promotes growth
  22. what are the s/s of cushing's syndrome?
    • increased BS
    • thirst
    • polyurea
    • impotence or cessation of menses
    • decreased libido
    • facial hair growth
    • emotional lability (rapid changes)
  23. what are the two main functions of the tyroid gland?
    • secretes T4 & T3 to increase metabolic rate
    • secretes calcitonin to decrease serum Ca+ (Calcitonin acts directly to cause calcium deposition in bone)
  24. what is the main cause of Cushing's syndrome?
    long term corticoid steroid usage
  25. What is the name of the disease caused from too much TH hormone?
    Grave's disease
  26. s/s of Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism)
    • fast metabolic rate
    • heat production
    • weight loss
    • tachycardia
    • anxiety
    • exophthalmos
    • (everything is REVED UP)
    • thyroid storm
  27. what is the drug used to treat Hyperthyroidism?
    • PTU (propylthiouracil)
    • Tapazole (methimazole)
  28. what are the adverse effects of PTU (propylthiouracil)
    • hypothyroidism
    • rash
    • transient leukopenia
    • agranulocytosis
    • hepatotoxicity and liver failure (black box)
  29. what pregnancy category is PTU (Propylthiouracil)?
    Category D
  30. what are the nursing considerations of PTU (propylthiouracil)?
    • monitor vital signs
    • appetite
    • weight
    • heat/cold
    • sleep patterns
    • ADL's
    • labs
    • s/s infection
  31. what is the most common disorder of the thyroid?
  32. what are the s/s of hypothyroidism?
    • weight gain
    • cold all the time
    • goiter
    • myxedema (weakness, cramps, dry skin)
    • bradycardia
    • slurred speech
  33. what is the drug used to treat HYPOthyroidism?
    synthroid (Levothyroxine)
  34. patient teaching for synthroid (Levothyroxine) treatment
    • take same time of day
    • AM's only (may cause insomnia)
    • life-long treatment
    • thyroid panel labs every 6 months
  35. Nursing considerations for synthroid (Levothyroxine)?
    • monitor vital signs
    • appetite
    • weight
    • heat/cold
    • sleep patterns
    • ADL's
    • labs
    • s/s infection
  36. what are the adverse effects of synthroid (Levothyroxine)?
    • hyperthyroidism
    • insomnia
  37. what is the pregnancy category of synthroid (Levothyroxine)?
    pregnancy category A
  38. the glucocorticoid helps cells obtain glucose for energy production and is secreted from the adrenal cortex
  39. this glucocorticoid maintains fluid and electrolyte balance and is secreted from the adrenal cortex
  40. this glucocorticoid functions to maintain reproduction and sex characteristics and is secreted from the adrenal cortex
  41. a person low in the glucocorticoids (cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens) have what disease?
    Addison's Disease
  42. what are the drug-drug interactions with glucocorticoids?
    • barbiturates, phenytoid, rifampin - decrease cortisone levels
    • estrogens potentiate effects
    • NSAID's increase ulcers
    • diuretics and amphotericin B increase risk of hypokalemia
    • anticholinesterase may produce severe weakness
  43. what are the short, intermediate, and long acting glucocorticoids?
    • short acting: hydrocortisone
    • intermediate: prednisone, methylprednisolone
    • long: betamethasone, dexamethasone
  44. nursing interventions of corticosteroid tx?
    • monitor symptoms that is being treated
    • monitor v/s
    • lab work
    • monitor BS
    • s/s of ulcer
    • s/s of infection
    • mood swings
    • increase ca+ in diet, weight bearing exer (Osteoporosis prevention)
    • eye exams
  45. what are the side effects of GH therapy somatotropin?
    • hyperglycemia
    • arthralgia
    • myalgia
    • abdominal pain
    • otitis media
    • HA
    • bronchitis
    • hypothyroidism
    • HTN
    • flulike symptoms
  46. what is the action of GH somatotropin?
    stimulates growth and metabolism
Card Set
Exam 3 - Endocrine
Chapter 44