Chapter 4 Key Terms

  1. Cells
    Rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function
  2. Nucleus
    Contains most of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell
  3. Nuclear Envelope
    Separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  4. Double Membrane
    Nuclear membrane that consists of a lipid bilayer
  5. Nuclear pore complexes
    Regulates entry/exit of molecules from the nucleus
  6. Nuclear Lamina
    Proteins that provide shape and structure to the lining of the nuclear enevelope
  7. Chromosome
    Composed of one long double stranded DNA molecule
  8. Chromatin (2)
    • DNA and proteins of chromosomes together
    • Condenses to form discrete chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide
  9. Nucleolus (2)
    • Located within the nucleus
    • Site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis
  10. Ribosomes (2)
    • Complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein
    • Carry out protein synthesis in two locations (cytosol & outside ER)
  11. Mitochondria (2)
    • Sites of cellular respiration
    • Have smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into cristae
  12. Cellular Respiration
    Metabolic pathway that uses oxygen to generate ATP from acetyl-CoA
  13. Chloroplast (3)
    • Found in plants and algae
    • Sites of photosynthesis
    • Capture light energy and convert it to a storable medium (glucose)
  14. Peroxisomes (3)
    • Specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane 
    • Do not contain their own DNA or ribosomes
    • Produce Hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
  15. Organelles (3)
    • Enveloped by a double membrane
    • Contain free ribosomes and their own circular DNA
    • Grow and reproduce somewhat independently in cells
  16. Intermembrane Space
    Space between the inner and outer membrane of a mitochondrian/chloroplast
  17. Matrix (2)
    • Space enclosed by the inner membrane
    • You'll find ribosomes, mitochondrial DNA, and soluble proteins
  18. Cristae (2)
    • Folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
    • Presents a large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP
  19. Chlorophyll
    Green pigment, enzymes, in the chloroplast
  20. Vacuoles (2)
    • Large vesicles derived from the ER and Golgi apparatus
    • Perform a variety of functions in different kinds of cells
  21. Food Vacuoles
    Formed by phagocytosis
  22. Contractile vacuoles (2)
    • Found in freshwater protists
    • Pump excess water out of cells
  23. Central vacuoles (2)
    • Found in mature plant cells
    • Hold organic compounds and water
  24. Lysosome (4)
    • Membrane-bound organelle that contains hydrolases
    • Acidic (pH 4.7)
    • Mature from endosomes
    • Use enzymes to recycle a cell's own organelles and macromolecules
  25. Hydrolases
    Enzymes that digest macromolecules through hydrolysis reactions
  26. Endosomes
    A form of vesicle in the cell, and gradually decrease in pH
  27. Phagocytosis
    Process where one cell can engulf another cell to form a food vacuole
  28. Endomembrane System (6)
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
    • Plasma membrane
  29. Endoplasmic Reticulum (3)
    • Accounts for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryotic cells
    • Continuous with the nuclear envelope
    • Two types
  30. Smooth ER (2)
    • Lacks ribosomes
    • Synthesize lipids, metabolize carbohydrates, detoxify drugs/poisons
  31. Rough ER (3)
    • Surface is studded with ribosomes
    • Provides the rest of the organelles with membrane components, including phospholipids and proteins through vesicles
    • Distribute transport vesicles
  32. Golgi Apparatus (5)
    • Consists of flattened membranous sacs (cisternae)
    • Directional flow of vesicles from cis face to trans face
    • Modifies ER products
    • Makes some macromolecules
    • Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
  33. Cytoskeleton (2)
    • Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
    • Organizes cell structures, activities and organelle anchoring sites
  34. Microtubules (6)
    • Thickest cytoskeleton molecular structure
    • Built from tubulin proteins
    • "Tracks" for movement of organelles
    • Movement of flagella and cilia
    • Seperates chromosomes during cell division
    • Hep maintain cell shape
  35. Intermediate Filaments (6)
    • Built from keratin proteins
    • Provide tensile strength
    • Less dynamic, but more stable than other two 
    • Support cell shape
    • Fix organelles in place
    • Involved in cell adhesion
  36. Microfilaments (4)
    • Built from actin proteins
    • Act as tracks for the movement of myosin molecules
    • Bear tension by resisting pulling forces within the cell
    • Form 3D network (cortex) inside plasma membrane
  37. Motor Proteins (4)
    • Proteins that act like a locomotive to pull cargo down a track
    • Interact with cytoskeleton structures to provide motility
    • Use in the cell to carry vesicles along tracks 
    • Signal contraction by sliding two tracks next to each other
  38. Myosin
    Allow cargo to be carried along microfilaments or in contractile movements
  39. Cell Wall (3)
    • Extracellular structure found in plans, prokaryotes, and fungi
    • Protects the plant and maintains shape
    • Prevents excess uptake of water
  40. Extracellular Matrix (3)
    • Made of glycoproteins
    • Bind to receptor proteins in the plasma membrane called integrins
    • Cover the animal cell
  41. Plasmodesmata
    Channels that perforate plant cell walls allowing water and small solutes to pass into the cell
  42. Tight Junctions
    Membrane of neighboring cells press together to prevent leakage between the cells of extracellular fluid
  43. Desmosomes (2)
    • Anchoring junctions
    • Fasten cells together into strong sheets
  44. Gap Junctions (2)
    • Communicating junctions
    • Direct cell to cell transfer of cytoplasmic contents
Card Set
Chapter 4 Key Terms
Key terms from chapter 4