Chapter 7 Key Terms

  1. The Energy Cycle
    Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
  2. Catabolic pathways
    Release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules
  3. Fermentation
    Partial catabolism of sugar molecules in the absence of O2
  4. Aerobic Respiration (2)
    • Consumes organic molecules and O2
    • Yields ATP through a multistep process that involves electron transfer
  5. Anaerobic Respiration
    Similar to aerobic respiration, but consumes compounds other than O2
  6. Cellular Respiration
    Includes aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  7. Redox Reaction
    Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants
  8. Oxidation (2)
    • A substance loses electrons¬†
    • Becomes more positively charges
  9. Reduction (2)
    • A substance gains electrons
    • Becomes more negative
  10. Reducing Agent
    Donates electrons to a reactant through a redox reaction
  11. Oxidizing Agent (2)
    • Receives electrons in a redox reaction¬†
    • Ex: OXYGEN
  12. NAD+ (3)
    • Coenzyme and electron acceptor
    • Oxidizing agent
    • Receives electrons
  13. NADH (2)
    • Reduced form of NAD+
    • Represents stored energy in the form of an electron that is used to synthesize ATP
  14. Glycolysis
    • Breaks one molecule of glucose down into two molecules of pyruvate
    • Not O2 dependent
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • Two stages
  15. The Citric Acid Cycle
    • Breaks 1 molecule of pyruvate down into CO2 and H2O
    • Generates 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
  16. Oxidative Phosphorylation (2)
    • Transfers electrons from NADH or FADH2, to complexes that pump H+ into the intermembrane space
    • Use H+ gradient to drive regeneration of ATP
  17. "Sugar Splitting"
    Breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
  18. Two stages of glycolysis
    • 1. Energy investment (ATP spent)
    • 2. Energy payoff phase (ATP generated)
  19. Fatty Acids (2)
    • Broken down into 2-carbon units and transferred into the mitochondrion
    • Hydrocarbons
  20. Electron Transport Chain (4)
    • Powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation
    • Transmembrane protein complexes
    • Found on the mitochondrial inner membrane
    • Establishes an H+ gradient across the inner membrane
  21. ATP Synthase (2)
    • Allows H+ ions to pass back into the mitochondrial matrix
    • Uses the exergonic flow of H+ to drive phosphorylation of ATP
  22. Chemiosmosis
    The use of energy in a H+ gradient to drive cellular work
Card Set
Chapter 7 Key Terms
Key Terms from chapter 7