DMU abdominal mid-term

  1. role of a sonographer
    a specific behavior that an individual demonstrates to others
  2. Anechoic
    without echoes, sonolucent
  3. Hyperechoic
    more echogenic than the surrounding tissue
  4. Gallstones
    • cholelithiasis
    • single large or hundreds of tiny ones
    • internal reflections without the lumen, and posterior acoustic shadowing
  5. Homogenous structures
    liver, thyroid, testes, spleen
  6. Solid mass
    irregular borders, internal echoes, decreased through-transmission
  7. Cystic mass
    smooth, well defined borders, anechoic, increased through-transmission
  8. echogenic / hyperechoic
    echo producing structure, reflects brighter intensity
  9. Heterogeneous
    not uniform texture or composition
  10. Homogeneous
    completely uniform in texture
  11. Hypoechoic
    low level echoes within a structure
  12. Isoechoic
    very close to the normal paenchyma echogenisity pattern
  13. Imaging Planes
    sagital, coronal, transverse, median
  14. Location of liver
    right hypochondrium. inferior to the diaphragm. extends several centimeters below the qiphoid process. left lobe is anterior and medial to the fundus of the stomach
  15. Location of hepatic artery
    arises from the celiac trunk and courses to the right of the abdomen and branches into the gastroduodenal artery and proper hepatic artery
  16. SMA
    arises from the anterior abdominal aortic wall approx 1 cm inferior to the celiac trunk. runs posterior to the neck of the pancreas and anterior to the uncinate process, then branches into the mesentary and colon
  17. hepatic duct
    emerges from the right lobe of the liver in the porta hepatis and uunites to form the common hepatic duct. which then passes caudaly and medialy. runs paralles with the portal vein
  18. Muscles of the anterior abdominal wall
    rectus abdominus
  19. porta hepatus
    central area of the liver where the portal vein, common duct and hepatic artery enter
  20. caudate lobe
    most superior aspect of the liver
  21. falciform ligament
    extends into the diaphragm, from the umbilicus to the diaphragm
  22. ligamentum teres
    the rounded termination of the falciform, divides the medial and lateral segments of the left lobe
  23. ligamentum venosum
    separates the left lobe from the caudate lobe, linear horizontal line just anterior to the caudate lobe
  24. portal venous system
    main portal aproaches the porta hepatis in a rightward, cephalic, and slightly posterior direction
  25. clinical significance of peritoneal recess
    fluid and infection may accumulate in the recess
  26. portal triad
    porta hepatis, central area of the liver where the portal vein, common duct, and hepatic artery enter
  27. cruz of the diaphragm
    muscular structure in the upper abdomen at the level of the celiac axis
  28. falciform ligament
    attaches the liver to the diaphragm
  29. Morrison's pouch
    space between right lobe of the liver and anterior righ kidney
  30. renal cell carcinoma
    most common tumor to fill the IVC
  31. portal vein
    carries blood from the intestine to the liver

    vein formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein near the porta hepatis of the liver
  32. gall bladder arterial supply
    via the cystic artery
  33. Superior mesenteric vein
    passes anterior to the uncinate process of the pancrease
  34. Aorta size
    3 cm
  35. Budd Chiari syndrome
    demostrates thrombosis of the hepatic veins
  36. left renal vein
    courses between the aorta and SMA
  37. mosty common cause of abdominal aneurysms
    arterio sclorosis
  38. echogenic linear structure fund anterior to the caudate lobe and posterior to the left lobe of the liver
    ligamentum venosum
  39. group of muscles that orginate at the hilum of the kidney and lie lateral to the spine
    psoas muscles
  40. triangular shaped echogenic structure seen within the left lobe of the liver
    ligamentum teres
  41. portal confluence is formed by
    splenic vein and SMV
  42. gastroduodenal artery courses along the anterolateral border of the
    head of the pancreas
  43. main lobar fissure projects from the right poral vein to the
    neck of the gallbladder
  44. aneurysms greater than _____ have an increased risk of catastrophic rupture
    5 cm
  45. any plane paralles to the median plane
  46. vertical plane that bisects the body into right and left halves
  47. any plane at right angles to both the median and coronal planes
  48. any vertical plane at right angles to the median plane
  49. arises from the anterior abdominal aorta approximately at the level of the third or fourth lumbar vertebra. proceeds to the left to distribute arterial blood to the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. branches into the left colic, sigmoid and superior rectal arteries.
    inferior mesenteric artery
  50. arteries that for the anterior, posterior, medial and inferior borders of the pancreas
    • celiac axis and branches - for superior border , includes left gastric, common hepatic, splenic
    • splenic - superior border
    • common hepatic - superior border of the body and head
    • gastroduodenal - anterolateral
    • sma - posterior
  51. obstruction of the renal vein resulting in the kidney becoming enlarged and edematoas
    renal vein thrombosis
  52. increased lipid accumulation. seen in alcoholic liver disease, diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, severe hepatitis, chronic illness, and steroids
    fatty liver
  53. sonographic findings of acute hepatitis
    liver texture may appear normal or portal vein borders are more prominent than usual. the liver parenchyma is slightly more echogenic than normal or attenuation may be present l. hepatosplenomegaly is present and the gallbladder wall is thickened
  54. most common type of benign tumor of the liver
    cavernous hemangioma
  55. benign tumors of the liver
    • cavernous hemangioma
    • liver cell adenoma
    • hepatic cystadenoma
    • focal nodular hyperplasia
  56. symptoms of abscess
    • fever of unknown origin
    • tenderness
    • swelling
    • chills
    • weakness
    • malaise
    • localized pain
  57. liver cells or hepatocytes as primary problem
    hepatocellular disease
  58. most common presentation of an athersclerotic aneurysm, usually occurs at the bifurcation
  59. spherical and large, connected to a vascular lumen by a mouth that may be as large as the aneurysm, may be partially or completely filled with thrombus
  60. Portal triad
    common bile duct, hepatic artery, main portal vein
  61. ligament that is the remnant of the fetal umbilical vein
    ligamentum teres
  62. the true anatomic boundary between the right and left lobes of the liver (segmental)
    falciform ligament
  63. normal size of the liver's anterior-posterior length
    12 cm
  64. the echogenicity of the liver is _____
  65. liver is enclosed by a fibrous capsule called _____
    glissom capsule
  66. the functioning part of the liver is ____
    parenchyma or lobule
  67. a pulsatile hematoma wich results from the leakage of blood into soft tissuewith subsequent fibrous encapsulation
Card Set
DMU abdominal mid-term
review for DMU abdominal