Introduction to Cultural studies

  1. Gender by Holly Devor

    • Sex vs. gender
    • nature (biological) vs. nurture (social construct)
    • female/male vs. feminin/masculin
    • ⇛ Importance of distinction
  2. Gender by Holly Devor

    Clusters of social definition
    • Behavior:
    • Femininity -> subordination
    • passivity
    • teamwork
    • harmony
    • sense of maternity
    • dependece
    • weakness

    • masculinity ->
    • dominant behavior
    • agressivness
    • competition
    • leader
    • success
    • independence
    • strength
  3. Gender by Holly Devor

    Clusters of social definition
    dress code /body postures

    • femininity ->
    • dress, skirt
    • exposure of bare skin
    • attractiveness
    • keep arms and legs close to the body

    • masculinity ->
    • wide fit, freedom of movement /physical power
    • emphasis on muscles
    • expansive&aggressive
    • arms and hands away from the body
  4. Gender by Holly Devor

    Clusters of social definition

    • femininity ->
    • non-aggressive
    • polite expressions
    • asks a lot of questions
    • higher frequencies

    • masculinity ->
    • aggressive / loud
    • less polite expressions
    • interrupt conversations, short sentences
    • deep voice
  5. Gender by Holly Devor

    Clusters of social definition
    ⇛ Clusters of social definitions are ideals, mirror-images and super-stereotypes
  6. Environmentalism
    • started at the end of 19th century (hunters, sportsmen, fishermen ⇾ overuse
    • urbanization /industrialization started
  7. Environmentalism
    • 1890-1920:
    • conservation movement
    • progressive era Theodor Rosevelt
    • foundet national parks in 1906
    • John Nuir still wanted huntig
  8. Environmentalism
    • 1930:
    • Franklin D. Rosevelt
    • great depression -> new jobs to help the environment
    • started reformation because of dust bowl (planting new trees)
  9. Environmentalism
    • 1945:
    • demonstrations against nuclear tests, dams, pesticides, noise, water/air poloution, waste,
  10. Environmentalism
    • 1960:
    • modern environmentalism started
  11. Environmentalism
    • 1980:
    • Ronald Reagon focused more local (anti-gun, pro animal rights)
    • Bill Mc Kibbon started about problems with fossil fuels
    • foundet organization "350org" (focused on jobs and buying lacaly)
    • hopes for deep economy -> think globaly, more quality, stop climate change

    "Sweet spot" :

    point where you can´t be happier anymore
  12. Environmentalism
    • By now:
    • big protest because of big pielines (Obama stopped it)
    • "individual fight´s" -> NGO´S
  13. Raymond Williams "Keywords"

    Definition of Culture
    • 1. general process of development
    • eg:
    • religion, western world, changes over time, slavery, individual-freedom
    • 2. way of life (people, period, humanity)
    • eg:
    • patriotic, lifestyle, American Dream
    • 3. works and practices
    • eg:
    • musicals, film, music, photography, literature
    • 4. religious freedom like:
    • mormons, baptists, Armish, puritons
  14. Raymond Williams "Keywords"
    • culture <-> cultivation <-> civilization
    • ⇣                       ⇣                      ⇣
    • mental         education           materialism
  15. Raymond Williams "Keywords"

    Culture is:
    • negative touch -> propaganda..
    • deviding things up -> subcultures
    • culture - vulture -> stealing culture and miss-use it
  16. Insights about culture

    "Dominat, emergent, residual"
    • Incoorporation with others
    • constantly have an influence and changing the culture
  17. Dominant:
    • selective
    • feudal culture (poor class)
    • bourgois culture ( middle class)
    • -> main stream
    • -> po´werful/control
    • powerstructures (church, government, uni...)
    • disseminate ideologies
    • Examples: consumerism, focus on individuality
  18. Emergent:
    • oppostit of dominant / against it
    • new alternativ
    • "Ideologies/ideas"
    • changes
    • subcultures
    • created constanty by groups and individuals
    • confrontional
    • Examples: Hippi culture
  19. Residual:
    • can go strongly against dominant or together
    • residue=leftover/rest
    • influenced by past/old prctices and still active today -> thanksgiving
    • Examples: organized religions, rural comunities monarchy, puritans, literature, frontierthesis, "the sun is rising"
  20. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    What is the frontier? How is the american frontier special?
    meeting point between savagery (free land) and civilisation (settlers)

    • foundet in 1776
    • 1790-1890: settled the continent
    • in europe: no free land=war
    • new culture/new men -> adapt (no survivors)
  21. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    What influenced the westward movement or had an effect on it?
    • Influenced by geography:mountains, lakes, rivers, tribes, natives
    • influenced by transportation: rail roads, ships(steam boats), horses, telephone
    • natural recources:mining, coal, copper, gold, crops, cotton, rice, tabacco
    • social conditions:indian war (to get more land) ->some states were bought
  22. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    Why did the east not like this frontier mentality? what to do against?
    • east organise the settlement (land)
    • west has own money (wildcat banking) ->no more east coast
    • west -> no law, east was stricter
    • east did sent teachers (school mums)
    • east sent missiononaries
  23. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    what kind of American characterists/traits result from frontier?
    • positive outlook of life (everything will be good)
    • individuals
    • hard working
    • inventive
    • its about size (the bigger the better)
  24. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    Problems with frontier
    • 1960 they found it out
    • they think "we´re the best" (white culture) dont care about the others
    • against native americans, blacks, women (except school mums)
    • dont care about nature
  25. "The American frontier" Frederick Jackson Turner

    Frontier myth
    • Residual: from right now
    • emergent: from settling the land
    • dominant: 1890
  26. Pow Wow Highway
    • indigenious people
    • tribal names eg. cheyenne
    • 500 tribes(nations)
    • warrior and horse culture
    • pan indian: all tribes come together
    • savage indian: blood thirsty
    • noble indian: better than white people
    • inadian maiden:
    • pocahontas story
    • tonto inadians: cant speak english
  27. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    5 aspects that determine native american identity
    • speaking official native american language
    • "whiteman´s rule ->BIA enrollment card
    • dark growing men with long black hair
    • 1/4 blood =indian
    • land/reservation/city
    • need to be recognized (by law) -> BIA bureau of indians affairs
  28. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    what role of BIA enrollment cards?
    • prove of beeing a real indian
    • you are an "official indian"
  29. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    "God bless america.I think we´ve won"(white people:government(BIA))

    everytime its the white person who wins (in western movies)
  30. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    identification categories? tone of story
    • prejudicees by other indians
    • rediciolous many categories
    • ironic
  31. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    determine whether a white person is native american or not?
    • apperience
    • language and history of tribe
    • traditions
  32. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    Texts determine Alexis identity
    • novels:glorified strong indians /warriors
    • movies:john wayne, Billy Jack -> wrong pictures ofnative americans
  33. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    why does he hate tonto?
    • white people play native americans
    • tonto-> first native american actor but to "dumb"
  34. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    Native americans/role model does he like?
  35. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    no real native american role model
  36. Shermain Alexie "I hated tonto and i still do"

    examples of role models that are problematic for kids?
    • black people -> no superheroes
    • barbiedolls/models->have to be skinny
  37. Dick Hebdige "subculture:The meaning of style"
    • subcultures are emergent(willams)-> people are not willing to follow dominant style
    • subculture:youth (express aourself ->media) polarisation -> discontent (unhappiness)
  38. Dick Hebdige "subculture:The meaning of style"

    What is subculture?
    • different groups from mainstream society
    •                ⇣                     ⇣

    •            discontent          "normal" people
    • ⇛a smaler cultural group within a larger cultural group with beliefs, interests, lifestyles that go against the larger group
    • no single person can built a subculture
    • people need to be unhappy to build one
    • eg: Teddy boys
  39. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"
    • Sign = anything that conveys meaning (alles zusammen)
    • signifier= sound or word (schrift)
    • signified= concept (in the mind)(Bild)
  40. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Three messages:
    • linguistic message: caption, labels=symbolic mesage
    • coded iconic message: (signs that consist of signified an signifier)
    • can be read in any order= symbolic message, cultural message
    • non-coded iconic message:(signs are not coded, for objects the following is true: signifier=signified)
    • =literal message, perceptual message
  41. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Linguistic message:
    • code:french language
    • supported by captions (marginal) and labels
    • message is denotational (pasta and pasta souce from a french company) and connotioal (italianicity of the brand
  42. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Non-coded iconic message
    • necessary to understand it=basic knowledge of objects and perception ->literal message
    • in real life, people do not differenciate between non coded and coded iconic message or cultural en perceptual
  43. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Linguistic message
    • since the arrival of bookprint, there is always a combination of written word and image
    • anchorage: (word and image are hinting at the same idea):words focus our gaze ->adds
    • relay:wordsand images are different, words drive the plot-> comic, strips, cartoons
  44. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Denotes image
    • always linked to symbolic message of image/innocent or utopian without code ->naturalness
    • relationship between signified and signifier is of recording
    • opposition of symbolic code and non coded naturalness -> denoted image naturalizes conoted message
  45. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Conoted message
    • lexical unit =lexia=image (depends on reader on certain knowledge
    • lexicon=a portion of the symbolic plane (of language) which corresponds to a body of practices and techniques. ech person has a number of lexicons that formhis/her ideolect
  46. Roland Barthes "the retoric of an image"

    Reihenfolge für analyse (werbung)
    • linguistic
    • denoted
    • conodet
  47. The american dream
    Matthew Warschauers "Who wants to be a millionaire"
    • america as beacon, new jerusalem, city upon a hill
    • "rags to riches"legend (horatio Alger)
  48. The american dream
    Matthew Warschauers "Who wants to be a millionaire"

    Old vs. new dream
    • Old dream:
    • traditional message taught that succes trough hart work, frugalty
    • new dream:
    • easier way, no hard work

    • B.Franklin
    • Lincoln and M-L King
  49. The american dream
    Matthew Warschauers "Who wants to be a millionaire"

    Big money (new dream)
    • Gameshows, state lottery
    • irony: 50% taxes -> no financial independence, no hard work
    • only need a bit luck to win lottery
  50. The american dream
    Matthew Warschauers "Who wants to be a millionaire"

    Compensation lawsuits
    • legal system tries to held injured
    • fake injury or self injuries
    • example: MCDonalds 3 Mio. because of hot coffe spill
  51. Public spaces
    "Mall of america" david guterson
    • Negative attitudes->against malls
    • "feeling lost"
    • young local women - shopping as heaven, addiction
    • history of mals in general: entertaiment park, mall dying, mall as celebrity
    • a lot of garbage
    • ⇛people in the mall are out of control, just what happend in the mall is important

  52. Public spaces
    John Fiske "shopping for preasure"
    • malls=cathedral of consumption (not his own words)
    • bourgois ideology
    • mall goers(unemployed young women take away free stuff) window shopping
    • ⇛mall use public spaces where the power of the weak is most obvious and tolerated
  53. Malls
    • indoor stores
    • food court, cinema, amusement pars, anchor store, hotels...
    • since 1990s they´re dying (to many malls)
    • first mall structures in greece, rome and syria
  54. Education
    Mary Lousie Pratt "arts of the contact zone"

    Contact zone:
    social spaces where cultures meetm, clash and grapple with each other, often in context of highly assymetrical relations of power, such as colonialism, slavery or their aftermaths
  55. Education
    Mary Lousie Pratt "arts of the contact zone"

    • a personal anecdote about her son, use baseball cards to learn.(Phonetics, geography, maths, social values...)
    • analysis of Guam Poma´s "New chronicle and the good government"
    • communities
    • classroom contact zone
  56. Education
    Mary Lousie Pratt "arts of the contact zone"

    Guam Poma
    • 1613: sent letter to spanish king, got lost, found again in 1803 in denmark
    • autoethnography (about oneself through eyes of other person)
    • wrote bilingual:quechua and spanish (2languages=2cultures)
    • against colonialism of spanish
  57. Education
    Mary Lousie Pratt "arts of the contact zone"
    transculturation happens in contact zone -> brings to cultures together, use them critical

    • -> a good way to change classroom
    • ->bilingual/cultural diversity
Card Set
Introduction to Cultural studies