A&P II: Chapter 21

  1. What are the two systems that work cooperatively to provide defense against disease?
    • Innate
    • Adaptive
  2. Innate immunity system: First lines of defense are . . . 
    • Protective barriers 
    • Chemical signals that attract phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, and other cells to attack antigens****inflammation is critical
  3. Adaptive immune response is ____ to antigen.
  4. Which immune system are you born with?
  5. What are pathogens?
    Harmful, disease causing microorganisms
  6. Surface barriers and mucosa: 

    Name 4
    • Mechanical barriers (physical obstruction)
    • Acidic skin/oral/stomach secretions (pH 3-5)
    • Lysozyme in saliva to destroy bacteria
    • Mucus traps in the digestive and respiratory pathways
  7. What can be found in saliva that helps destroy bacteria?
  8. Mucose covers that pathways that . . .
    • are open to the outside world.
    • i.e. respiratory tract or anus
  9. What are cells in the blood and lymph that lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected cells?
    Natural killer cells (NK)
  10. What do natural killer cells release that attacks membranes of enemy cells?
  11. What non-specific defense (cell) kills your own cells tat turn bad?
    Natural Killer Cells
  12. Wander macrophages are free and fixed are attached to . . .
    a fiber.
  13. Describe Natural killer cells
    Large, granular lymphocytes, recognize cell surface sugars, release perforin to attack membranes.
  14. Phagocytes derive from what type of white blood cell?
  15. Inflammation prevents the spread of . . . 
    Disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and set the stage for repair.
    damaging agents to nearby tissue
  16. What response to tissue injury disposes of cell debris and pathogens and sets the stage for repair?
  17. During vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, a flood of inflammatory chemicals are released into intercellular fluids.

    Name them
    • Histamine 
    • Kinins
    • Protaglandins 
    • Compliments 
    • Cytokines
  18. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability cause _____, the redness and heat of blood congesting in an area.
  19. What is the term used to describe redness and heat of blood congestion in an area?
  20. Chemicals that increase capillary permeability: _____
    Exudate: a fluid with clotting factors and antibodies from the bloodstream into tissue spaces.
  21. Exudate released to increase capillary permeability is an example of what type of immune system?
  22. Exudate released to increase capillary permeability causes _____
    Edema: swelling and pain by stimulating nerves
  23. Edema dilutes _______, brings in ___ and nutrients for repair, ___ proteins enter, and B-defensins enter, with ______ antibiotic properites.
    • Harmful chemicals 
    • Oxygen 
    • Clotting 
    • Broad spectrum
  24. _____- prmotes release of neutrophils from red-marrow.
  25. _____-Inflammed areas sprout cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) providing foothold for neutrophils to cling to damaged area
  26. ____-Neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls.
  27. ____-Neutrophils follow chemical gradients to site of the injury.
  28. What white blood cells are the first responders and get access through diapedesis?
  29. _____ are like flare markers for the helo to get to the help site.
  30. What are interferons?
    • A family of related proteins, each with a different physiological effect
    • Act against malignant cells, reduce inflammation in injured areas, activate macrophages and mobilize natural killer cells, have antiviral agent
  31. What acts against malignant cells, reduce inflammation in injured areas, activate macrophages and mobilize natural killer cells, have antiviral agent?
  32. Interferons:
    1)Virus enters cell
    2)Interferon . . .
    3)Cell produces interferon molecules
    4)Interferon binding stimulates cells to . . .
    5)Antiviral proteins block viral production
    • Genes switch on 
    • Turn on genes for antiviral proteins
  33. Complement kills bacteria by ____.
  34. Complement destroys foreign substances in the body by . . .
    Amplifying the inflammation process
  35. What antimicrobial protein interfere with microorganisms ability to reproduce?
  36. Interferons are not virus specific 

    T or F
  37. 3 types of interferons:

    Gamma(immune) found in ____.
    Alpha interferon found in _____.
    Beta interferon found in _____.
    • Lymphocytes 
    • Other leukocytes
    • Fibroblasts
  38. Complement is specific or non-spefific?
  39. Fever is a ___ defense.
  40. What chemicals are used in fever that rise temp.?
  41. Pyrogens that cause incease temp. are secreted by ____ and ____ upon exposure to bacteria
    • Leukocytes 
    • Macrophages
  42. Bacteria require ____ and ___ to multiply, which are sequestered by the liver and spleen during fevers
    • Iron
    • Zinc
  43. Fever also speeds repair (by lowering the EA of ___)
    enzyme activity
  44. Bacteria is able to thermoregulate 

    T or F
    • False
    • Isn't able
  45. Antibodies in the body fluids, produced by lymphocytes, bind to antigens and mark them for destruction by phagocytes

    Are humoral or cell mediated?
  46. Humoral is ____ mediated immunity.
  47. Complete Antigen:

    _____- stimulates proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies.
    _____- Have the ability to react to the activated lymphocytes and antibodies.
    • Immunogenicity 
    • Reactivity
  48. What are small molecules causing an allergic reaction and mount an attack once linked to bodies defenses?
  49. Antigen's _____ attach to antibodies.
  50. ____ mark cells as self.
  51. Cell external surfaces have protein molecules, termed self antigens
    MHC:  major histocompatability complex
  52. MHC:  major histocompatability complex

    What are the 2 types and where are they found?
    • Class I: All cells
    • ClassII: Only certain cells acting in immune response
  53. What causes transplants to be accepted or rejected?
    MHC:  major histocompatability complex
  54. Lymphocytes:

    T: ___-mediated immunity
    B: ___- mediated immunity
    • Cell
    • Antibody(humoral)
  55. Remember B-cells or any antigens only target not kill.(Humoral)
  56. T-cells: 2-3 day process to mature (under thymus hormones) to identify foreign antigens

    _____ selection: recognize own tissues when bound to an antigen

    ____ selection: bind to self-proteins

    Must become self-tolerant, unresponsive to ____
    • Positive
    • Negative
    • Self-antigens
  57. Strongly anti-self is dangerous to you. Kill all.Failure to recognize self result in _____ (cell suicide)
  58. B-cells: Primary where they get trained, then secondary they are specified. Immunocompetent until they are ____, then they are good.
  59. B-cells: in _____ but little is known about the factors controlling maturation
    bone marrow
  60. B-cells: Immunocompetence in organs that activate lymphocytes termed _____.
    primary lymphoid organs (All other lymphoid organs are secondary lymphoid organs)
  61. What do antigen-presenting cells do?
    Engulf foreign particles and present fragments of these antigens on the surface
  62. What are the types of antigen-presenting cells?
    • Dendritic (intersitial)
    • Langerhan's 
    • Activated B-lymphocyte
  63. If a B-cell, provokes a humoral immune response, . . .
    Antibodies are produced against the challenger
  64. Clonal selection: 

    Antigens bind to receptors, causing receptor-mediated ____
    Triggers clonal selection: stimulate B-cells to grow and multiply with identical antigen-specific receptors
    Each cell identical: clone
    Most cells become plasma cells
    Plasma cells secrete _____ (up to 2000 molecules/sec!)
    Plasma cells last 4-5 days
    Clone cells not becoming plasma cells turn into ____ cells (long-lived) that can mount a near immediate response if encountered a second time


  65. ___ level is concentration level of antibodies. Once you immunized, your titer level is ___ than those not immunized. The first encounter has that lag time of 3-6 days, but the second immune response has the memory and is faster, longer, and more effective.

  66. _____ humoral immunity: Encounter antigen and produce antibody
  67. ___ humoral immunity:  Antibodies from external source (serum) donor.  Immune system not challenged, no memory, protection ends when antibodies naturally degrade
  68. Vaccine are what type of immunity?
    Humoral Active artificial
  69. Infection; contact with a pathogen is what type of immunity?
    Active humoral natural
  70. Antibodies passed from mother to fetus via placenta; or to infant in her milk are examples of what type of immunity?
    Passive Humoral Natural
  71. Injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)

    Type of immunity.
    Passive Humoral artifical
  72. Antibodies: _____ constitute the gamma globulins of blood proteins
    Immunoglobulins (Igs)
  73. Antibodies classified by the structure: 

    All have in common: ___ polypeptide chains connected by disulfide bonds

    (Hey, wait a minute, what kind of bond?)

    Two ___ chains, two ___ chains composing an antibody monomer
    Each of the four chains has a ____  region at one end and a larger ____ region at the other end
    • Four
    • Heavy 
    • Light
    • Variable (V)
    • Constant (C)
  74. Antibodies structure:

    __ region: antigen-binding site shaped to fit a specific antigenic determinant
    Each monomer has ___ binding sites
    • V
    • 2
  75. Antibodies Structure:

    __ region: form stem, the effector region

    Dictates cells and chemicals the antibody can bind to
    How the antibody class will function in antigen elimination
  76. Classes of Antibodies: 
    IgM: __-tamer
    IgA: __-mer
    IgG: monomer
    IgE: monomer
    • Pen-
    • Di-
    • mono
  77. ____ is virtually always attached o the external surface of a B cell, where it functions as the antigen receptor of the B cell, important in B cell activation.
  78. ___ exist in monomer and pentamer forms. The monomer, attached to B-cell surface, serves as an antigen receptor. Pentamer circulates in blood plasma and is the first Ig class released in primary response,
  79. ___ is the most abundant and diverse antibody in the plasma. Passive immunity for mother to fetus.
  80. ____ monomer exists in limited amounts in plasma. The dimer referred to as secretory ___, is found in body secretions (milk, saliva, sweat) and helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epothelial cell surfaces.
  81. ___ is found in GI tract and mucus membranes.
  82. ___ antibody levels increase during severe allergic attacks or chronic parasitic infections.
  83. ___-Against cells (bacteria, etc), binding causes a 3D change and exposed complement binding sites, leading to cell lysis
  84. ____-Block specific sites on the antigen (i.e. exotoxins), minimizing the toxic effect of the antibody. Toxins are unable to be released. Eventually, antibody is phagocytized
  85. ____-Cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes, causing clumping. IgM especially effective
  86. ____-Soluble molecules (not cells) are cross-linked into complexes and settle out of solution.
  87. During agglutination or precipitation, both eventually ____.
  88. Antibodies have a PLAN

    • P = precipitation
    • L = lysis (by complement)
    • A = agglutination
    • N = neutralization
  89. ____ : Also called T4 cells
    Helper T cells (TH)
  90. CD8: T8 cells, _____ cells that destroy cells harboring foreign material
    Cytotoxic (TC)
  91. __-cells: Cannot detect antigen, but only those cells that have processed cell fragments (protein antigens) on plasma membrane

    Good for: cell-cell interactions, intercellular parasites, abnormal/cancerous cells, transplanted foreign tissues
  92. T cell response:
    Class I: Recognized by ___, displayed by most cells. Synthesized in the ER and passed to Plasma membrane for implantationEndogenous antigen: foreign proteins synthesized and displayed
  93. T cell response:
    Class II: On B, T, and antigen presenting cells. From catabolized proteins (exogenous proteins) that are repackaged (Golgi) and displayed
  94. T cell activation: 

    T-cell antigen receptors bind to an antigen-MHC complex
    Termed naïve T-cells at this stage (activated)

    Must recognize costimulatory signals (safeguard)
    Activated T-cell enlarges and proliferates forming a clone
    Perform functions according to the T-cell class
    • Antigen
    • Costimulation
  95. Helper T cells stimulate only (direct) . . .
    T and B cells
  96. Killer T-cell term
    Cytotoxic T-cells
  97. Cytotoxic T-cell activates _____ to lysis.
    Lethal hit
  98. Other ways Cytotoxic T-cells work:
    ___-fragments target cell DNA
    ___-triggers apoptosis (programmed cell death) in 48-72 hours
    ___-Stimulates macrophages to killer status, enhancing phagocytosis
    • Lymphotoxin
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF)
    • Gamma Interferon
  99. ____-: Transplant within the same person (artery transplants)
    ___: Grafts between genetically identical twins
    ____: Grafts between individuals that are not genetically identical, but of the same species (most transplants)
    ____: Grafts taken from another animal (pig kidney transplants, etc)
    • Autografts
    • Isografts
    • Allografts
    • Xenografts
  100. Hodgkin’s disease explain
    Cancer of the lymph nodes
  101. Explain AIDS
    Destroys the effectiveness of CD4 cells (helper T)
  102. ____-Immune system loses the ability to distinguish self from non-self, producing autoanitbodies
    Autoimmune diseases
  103. Hypersensitivity:

    Immediate: Begin in seconds, lasts for about ½ an hour

    Subacute: Begin in 1 - 3 ___, lasts for 10 - 15 hours

    Delayed: Begin in 1 - 3 ___
    • Hours 
    • Days
  104. ___-Produce huge amounts of antibody (IgE), and attach to mast cells and basophils
  105. ____-Spontaneous allergy without previous exposure (10%)
  106. Subacute allergy: caused by ___, ___, not IgE.
    • IgG
    • IgM
  107. Basically, a cell-mediated hypersensitivity including both cytotoxic and hypersensitive T-cells

    Delayed Hyersensitivity 

Card Set
A&P II: Chapter 21
Immunity chapter