Remember B-cells or any antigens only target not kill.(Humoral)
T-cells: 2-3 day process to mature (under thymus hormones) to identify foreign antigens
_____ selection: recognize own tissues when bound to an antigen
____ selection: bind to self-proteins
Must become self-tolerant, unresponsive to ____
Strongly anti-self is dangerous to you. Kill all.Failure to recognize self result in _____ (cell suicide)
B-cells: Primary where they get trained, then secondary they are specified. Immunocompetent until they are ____, then they are good.
B-cells: in _____ but little is known about the factors controlling maturation
B-cells: Immunocompetence in organs that activate lymphocytes termed _____.
primary lymphoid organs (All other lymphoid organs are secondary lymphoid organs)
What do antigen-presenting cells do?
Engulf foreign particles and present fragments of these antigens on the surface
What are the types of antigen-presenting cells?
If a B-cell, provokes a humoral immune response, . . .
Antibodies are produced against the challenger
Antigens bind to receptors, causing receptor-mediated ____
Triggers clonal selection: stimulate B-cells to grow and multiply with identical antigen-specific receptors
Each cell identical: clone
Most cells become plasma cells
Plasma cells secrete _____ (up to 2000 molecules/sec!)
Plasma cells last 4-5 days
Clone cells not becoming plasma cells turn into ____ cells (long-lived) that can mount a near immediate response if encountered a second time
___ level is concentration level of antibodies. Once you immunized, your titer level is ___ than those not immunized. The first encounter has that lag time of 3-6 days, but the second immune response has the memory and is faster, longer, and more effective.
_____ humoral immunity: Encounter antigen and produce antibody
___ humoral immunity: Antibodies from external source (serum) donor. Immune system not challenged, no memory, protection ends when antibodies naturally degrade
Vaccine are what type of immunity?
Humoral Active artificial
Infection; contact with a pathogen is what type of immunity?
Active humoral natural
Antibodies passed from mother to fetus via placenta; or to infant in her milk are examples of what type of immunity?
Passive Humoral Natural
Injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
Type of immunity.
Passive Humoral artifical
Antibodies: _____ constitute the gamma globulins of blood proteins
Antibodies classified by the structure:
All have in common: ___ polypeptide chains connected by disulfide bonds
(Hey, wait a minute, what kind of bond?)
Two ___ chains, two ___ chains composing an antibody monomer
Each of the four chains has a ____ region at one end and a larger ____ region at the other end
__ region: antigen-binding site shaped to fit a specific antigenic determinant
Each monomer has ___ binding sites
__ region: form stem, the effector region
Dictates cells and chemicals the antibody can bind to
How the antibody class will function in antigen elimination
____ is virtually always attached o the external surface of a B cell, where it functions as the antigen receptor of the B cell, important in B cell activation.
___ exist in monomer and pentamer forms. The monomer, attached to B-cell surface, serves as an antigen receptor. Pentamer circulates in blood plasma and is the first Ig class released in primary response,
___ is the most abundant and diverse antibody in the plasma. Passive immunity for mother to fetus.
____ monomer exists in limited amounts in plasma. The dimer referred to as secretory ___, is found in body secretions (milk, saliva, sweat) and helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epothelial cell surfaces.
___ is found in GI tract and mucus membranes.
___ antibody levels increase during severe allergic attacks or chronic parasitic infections.
___-Against cells (bacteria, etc), binding causes a 3D change and exposed complement binding sites, leading to cell lysis
____-Block specific sites on the antigen (i.e. exotoxins), minimizing the toxic effect of the antibody. Toxins are unable to be released. Eventually, antibody is phagocytized
____-Cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes, causing clumping. IgM especially effective
____-Soluble molecules (not cells) are cross-linked into complexes and settle out of solution.
During agglutination or precipitation, both eventually ____.
Antibodies have a PLAN
P = precipitation
L = lysis (by complement)
A = agglutination
N = neutralization
____ : Also called T4 cells
Helper T cells (TH)
CD8: T8 cells, _____ cells that destroy cells harboring foreign material
__-cells: Cannot detect antigen, but only those cells that have processed cell fragments (protein antigens) on plasma membrane
T cell response:
Class I: Recognized by ___, displayed by most cells. Synthesized in the ER and passed to Plasma membrane for implantationEndogenous antigen: foreign proteins synthesized and displayed
T cell response:
Class II: On B, T, and antigen presenting cells. From catabolized proteins (exogenous proteins) that are repackaged (Golgi) and displayed
T cell activation:
T-cell antigen receptors bind to an antigen-MHC complex
Termed naïve T-cells at this stage (activated)
Must recognize costimulatory signals (safeguard)
Activated T-cell enlarges and proliferates forming a clone
Perform functions according to the T-cell class
Helper T cells stimulate only (direct) . . .
T and B cells
Killer T-cell term
Cytotoxic T-cell activates _____ to lysis.
Other ways Cytotoxic T-cells work:
___-fragments target cell DNA
___-triggers apoptosis (programmed cell death) in 48-72 hours
___-Stimulates macrophages to killer status, enhancing phagocytosis
Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF)
____-: Transplant within the same person (artery transplants)
___: Grafts between genetically identical twins
____: Grafts between individuals that are not genetically identical, but of the same species (most transplants)
____: Grafts taken from another animal (pig kidney transplants, etc)
Hodgkin’s disease explain
Cancer of the lymph nodes
Destroys the effectiveness of CD4 cells (helper T)
____-Immune system loses the ability to distinguish self from non-self, producing autoanitbodies
Immediate: Begin in seconds, lasts for about ½ an hour
Subacute: Begin in 1 - 3 ___, lasts for 10 - 15 hours
Delayed: Begin in 1 - 3 ___
___-Produce huge amounts of antibody (IgE), and attach to mast cells and basophils
____-Spontaneous allergy without previous exposure (10%)
Subacute allergy: caused by ___, ___, not IgE.
Basically, a cell-mediated hypersensitivity including both cytotoxic and hypersensitive T-cells