What is the reason that a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) can resolve biological images to the subnanometer level, as opposed to to tens of nanometers achievable for the best super-resolution light microscope?
D) Electron beams have much shorter wavelengths than visible light
A newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that an inexpensive toy microscope available for a small child is able to magnify specimens nearly as much as the more costly microscope available in your college lab. What is the most likely reason for the price difference?
A) The toy microscope magnifies a good deal, but has low resolution and therefore poor quality images
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?
B) Smooth ER
Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
C) The lysosome
Which of these structures is common to plant and animal cells?
Cell size is limited by ___.
B) surface to volume ratios
Which of these organelle(s) is/are absent in animal cells?
A) The central vacuole
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT ___.
D) an endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
A) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes
Which of the following is NOT true about lysosomes?
D) Lysosomes contain hydrolase enzymes that are most active at pH 6.0-7.2
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in ___.
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the ___.
In a plant cell, DNA may be found ___.
C) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast
In a yeast cell, DNA may be found ___.
C) only in the nucleus and mitochondria
In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and ___.
D) transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide
If you isolated cytoskeletal protein structures that also had myosin motor proteins associated with it, which type of cytoskeletal structure did you most likely isolate?
Kinesin family motor proteins typically walk toward the ___ end of microtubules, whereas dynein family motor proteins typically walk toward the __ end of microtubules.
C) plus; minus
Which of the following contain the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules?
C) flagella and motile cilia
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
A) components of the cytoskeleton
Spherocytosis is a human blood disorder associated with a defective cytoskeletal protein in the red blood cells (RBCs). What do you suspect is the consequence of such a defect?
C) abnormally shaped RBCs
What technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division?
D) Standard light microsopy
The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that ___.
B) light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells
The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you most likely expect to be the immediate consequence?
A) a change in the shape of the nucleus
You would expect to see large numbers of ribosomes present in cells that specialize in producing which of these macromolecules?
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A) ER-> Golgi-> vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is most likely specialized in ___.
D) synthesis of large quantities of lipids
Which of these organelles is responsible for the synthesis of glucose?
Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from ___.
A) nearly any eukaryotic organisms
The evolution of the eukaryotic cells most likely involved __.
C) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell- the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
What are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
A) In mitochondria
Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine would be unable to __.
B) separate chromosomes during cell division
Which of these cytoskeleton structures is most likely to be found at the leading edge of a neutrophil that is chasing a bacterium?
Which of these cytoskeleton structures is composed of tubulin proteins?
Researcher tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?
C) Motor proteins
Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane?
Which structures are NOT part of the endomembrane system?
A) Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells?
B) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus
Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
Which of the following is NOT true? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria __.
C) are part of the endomembrane system
Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves ___.
D) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane
Which type of cytoskeleton assembly is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nuclear envelope?
D) Intermediate filaments
Cilia and flagella bend because of ___.
A) a motor protein called dynein
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
D) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other