CH.10 Physiology and Histology of the Skin

  1. The study of the structure and composition of the skin tissue
    Skin histology
  2. the study of the functions of living organisms
  3. What is an estheticians primary focus on?
    preserving, protecting, and nourishing the skin
  4. What affects the skin's health and appearance?
    The aging process, sun exposure, hormones, and nutrition
  5. Why is it important to understand how the skin cell layers function?
    Helps you choose ingredients and treatments for clients
  6. What system is the skin part of?
  7. What is the largest organ in the body?
  8. What are proteins made of?
    amino acids
  9. What holds amino acids together?
    peptide bonds
  10. Chains of amino acids
  11. Describe healthy skin
    slightly moist, soft, smooth, and somewhat acidic
  12. Skin contains how much blood and how much of the primary immune cells?
    1/2 to 2/3 of blood and one-half of the primary immune cells
  13. What are the 6 primary functions of the skin?
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Sensation
    • Secretion
    • Exretion
    • Regulation
  14. What is sebum and it's purpose?
    oil; gives protection from external factors such as invasion by certain bacteria by lubricating both the skin and hair
  15. What is the acid mantle?
    The skin's natural protective barrier made up of sebum, lipids, sweat and water
  16. What is the pH of balanced skin?
  17. Why is it important for the skin to maintain proper acidic level of 5.5?
    to protect from pathogens and for regulating enzymatic functions
  18. What is the purpose of the acid mantle?
    keep the skin from drying out from exposure/external factors, irritation, and TEWL
  19. What is TEWL?
    Transepidermal Water Loss; water loss caused by evaporation on the skin's surface
  20. What is melanin?
    pigment that protects us from the sun's UV rays
  21. What is the body's average internal thermostat?
  22. How does the body maintain thermoregulation?
    evaportation, persperation, insultaion, radiation
  23. Millions of sweat glands keep us from overheating by releasing what?
    heat from the body through perspiration
  24. What are pores?
    sweat gland openings
  25. What are follicles?
    tube-like depressions with oil glands attatched
  26. What are arrector pili muscles?
    muscles that cause goosebumps
  27. What are sudoriferous glands?
    sweat glands; excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess water, salt, and unwanted chemicals through the pores
  28. Sebaceous Glands
    oil glands; appendages attatched to follicles that produce sebum
  29. What percentage of water does the skin approximately have?
  30. What does the skin absorb in order to maintain its health?
    ingredients, water, and oxygen
  31. Epidermis
    outermost layer of the skin; epithelial tissue that covers our body
  32. What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum Lucidum
    • Stratum Granulosm
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Germitivum(Basal Layer)
  33. Which part of the skin are licensed to work on and which layer are they primarily concerned with?
    Epidermis; Stratum Corneum
  34. The epidermis and dermis combined is how thick? Epidermis?
    1.5 to 4mm. .04-1.5mm
  35. Keratinocytes
    composed of keratin, comprise 95% of the epidermis
  36. Stratum Corneum
    horny layer; top, outermost layer of the epidermis
  37. Desquamation
    process in which karatinocytes are continually shed from the skin
  38. What is the average adult cell turnover rate?
    ever 28 days depending on a person's age, lifestyle, and health
  39. Stratum Corneum has about how many layers of cells?
  40. Squamous
    another name for keratinocytes; flat, scaly
  41. Stratum Lucidum
    thin, clear layer of dead skin cells; translucent layer made of small cels that let light pass through
  42. Where is the stratum lucidum thickest on?
    palms of the hands and soles of the feet
  43. Stratum Granulosum
    Granular Layer; composed of cells that resemble granules and are filled with keratin
  44. In which layer do enzymes dissolve the structures(desmosomes) that hold cells together
  45. Stratum Spinosum
    Spiny Layer; Cells continue to divide and change shape here, and enzymes are creating lipids and proteins. Cell Appendages(resemble prickly spines) become desmosomes, Langerhans, and Melansome pigment distrubution
  46. What is the largest layer in the epidermis?
    Stratum Spinosum
  47. Langerhans
    Guard Cells/Immune Cells; protect the body from infections by indentifying foreign material(antigens)
  48. Stratum Germinativum
    Basal Cell Layer; composed of a single layer of basal cells laying on a "basement membrane"
  49. What process do cells go under to replenish the regular loss of skin cells shed from the surface?
  50. Which layer of the epidermis does mitosis take place?
    Stratum Germinativum
  51. What are stem cells?
    mother cells that divide to produce daughter cells
  52. Merkel Cells
    Sensory cells; touch receptors located in the Basal Layer
  53. Melanocytes
    cells that produce pigment granules in basal layer
  54. What percent of basal cells are melanocytes?
  55. Melanosomes
    Pigment carrying granules that produce melanin
  56. What determines the differences in genetic skin color?
    The amount of melanin activated in the skin and the way it is distributed
  57. Every person has approximately the same number of ______.
  58. Pheomelanin
    red to yellow
  59. Eumelanin
    Dark brown-Black
  60. Products that suppress melanin production by interrupting biochemical processes are...
    Tyrosinase inhibitors; brightening agents
  61. Other names for dermis
    derma, corium cutis, true skin
  62. What is the dermis?
    support layer of connective tissues below the epidermis
  63. What connects the dermis to the epidermis
    dermal/epidermal junction
  64. How much thicker is the dermis compared to the epidermis?
    25 times
  65. What are the 2 layers of the dermis
    papillary and reticular
  66. Collagen
    protein substance of complex fibers that gives skin its STRENGTH and is necessary for wound healing; makes up 70% of the dermis
  67. Fibroblast cells
    (cell stimulators) produce proteins and aid in the production of collagen and elastin
  68. Elastin
    fibrous protein that forms elastic tissue and gives skin its elasticity
  69. Lymph vessels
    remove waste products, bacteria, and excess water
  70. Lymphocytes
    fight infections
  71. Mast Cells
    involved in allergic reactions
  72. Leukocytes
    white blood cells to fight infections; destroys foreign matter
  73. Hyaluronic acid
    beneficial hydrating fluids; GAG-Glycosaminoglycans
  74. papillary layer
    connects the dermis to the epidermis; forming the epidermal/dermal junction
  75. dermal papillae
    membranes of ridges and grooves that attatch to the epidermis
  76. reticular layer
    denser and deeper layer of the dermis; comprised mainly of collagen and elastin
  77. What breaks down collagen and elastin?
    UV damage and other factors
  78. Subcutaneous layer
    hypodermis; composed of loose connective tissue
  79. Subcutis Tissue
    Loose connective tissue also known as adipose tissue
  80. Motor nerves
    efferent nerves; nerve fibers convey impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles or glands
  81. Secretory nerves
    motor nerves attached to sweat and oil glands. They regulate excretion from the sweat glands and control sebum output to the surface of the skin
  82. Sebaceous Glands
    secrete oil
  83. sudoriferous glands
    excrete sweat
  84. Approcrine glands
    coiled structures attached to the ahir follices found under the arms and in the genital area; more active during emotional changes
  85. Eccrine glands
    found all over the body; primarily on the forehead, palms and soles. More active when the body is subjected to physical activity and high temperatures
  86. In order to survive, cells need what important elements?
    Nourishment, Protection, The ability to function properly, and Continual Replacement/Proliferation
  87. T-cells
    communicate with other cells after indentifying foeign peptides
  88. Langerhans
    guard cells
  89. What is the effect of AHAs and vitamin A?
    stimulates skin cell turnover and reduce visible signs of aging
  90. What percentage of our aging is caused by sun exposure?
  91. UVA
    aging rays, contributes up to 95% of the sun's ultraviolet ration reaching the Earth's surface
  92. UVB
    burning Rays, causing burning, aging, and cancer. shorter, stronger and more damgaging
  93. free radicals
    chemicaly active atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. They attack the cell membrane and are super-oxidizers
  94. Name and indication of free radical damage
    red and inflamed skin
  95. binding of a protein molecule to a glucose molecule resulting in the formation of damaged nonfunctioning structures
  96. What happens to the skin as estrogen is depleted?
    It loses its tone
  97. What happens when estrogen decreases?
    Testosterone becomes dominant which increases sebum production, pore size, and hair growth on the face
  98. couperose skin
    telangiectasia; dilation of capillary walls
  99. What different types of Hormone Replacement Therapy(HRT)?
    animal source or plant-source estrogens
Card Set
CH.10 Physiology and Histology of the Skin