ST midterm

  1. Abduction
    Movement away from the body
  2. Compartment Syndrome
    Severe swelling & tissue injury caused by constriction of the blood and lymph; can progress into tissue necrosis
  3. Compression Injury
    Tissue injury caused by continuous pressure
  4. Embolism
    Clot of blood, air, organic material, or a foreign body traveling through the vascular system
  5. Fasciotomy
    Surgical treatment for compartment syndrome in which the fascia is incised to release severe tissue swelling
  6. Footboard
    Operating table attachment that braces the patient's weight when the table is tilted toward the feet
  7. Hyperextension
    Extension of joint beyond normal range
  8. Hyperflexion
    Flexion of joint beyond normal range
  9. Hypotension
    Decreased blood pressure
  10. Ischemia
    Loss of blood supply to a body part; Prolonged ischemia causes tissue death from lack of oxygen to the tissue
  11. Lateral Transfer
    Transfer of patient horizontally between surfaces
  12. Necrosis
    Tissue death
  13. Neuropathy
    Permanent or temporary nerve injury that results in numbness or loss of function
  14. Range of Motion
    Normal anatomical movement of an extremity
  15. Shear Injury
    Injury or necrosis; Usually occurs when the body is pulled or slides by gravity across a high-friction surface
  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
    Disorders attributed to compression of the subclavian vessels and nerves; Can cause permanent injury to the arm and shoulder
  17. Thromboembolus
    Blood clot that breaks loose & enters systemic circulation, causing obstruction or blockage
  18. Traction Injury
    Nerve injury caused by stretching or compression
  19. Transfer Board
    Thin, Plexiglas, Fiberglass, or roller board placed under patient to move the patient laterally
  20. Trendelenburg Position
    A prone or supine patient is tilted w/ head down. Head down, feet up; Used in laparoscopyImage Upload 1
  21. The ________ ________ is responsible for patient identification
    Surgical Technologist
  22. All patients are identified in at least __ ways
  23. Patients' wrist or ankle bands are imprinted with:
    Name, date of birth, sometimes hospital number
  24. Identification Guidelines:
    1. Examine ID band, compare info to chart 2. Ask patient to state their info 3. Ask patient to tell you procedure 4. Always check chart, ID band, & hospital ID # for each patient
  25. A patient who has become cold during transport is at higher risk for ________ during surgery
  26. Supine Surgical Position
    Flat on back; Used for abdominal, breast, thyroid, knee, or facial procedures.Image Upload 2
  27. Prone Surgical Position
    Lying on stomach; Used for back, buttock, or anal procedures. Image Upload 3
  28. Lateral Surgical Position
    Lying on right on left side; Used for kidney, thoracic, or hip procedures. Image Upload 4
  29. Lithotomy Surgical Position
    Legs in stirrups; Used for vaginal or rectal procedures. Image Upload 5
  30. Fowlers Surgical Position
    Modified sitting position; More reclined than beach chair; Used for shoulder or craniotomy procedures. Image Upload 6
  31. Reverse Trendelenburg Surgical Position
    Head up, feet down; Used in laparoscopicImage Upload 7 cholecystectomy.
  32. Bean Bag
    Contains bean-like structures & has a suction attachment; W/ suction, bag becomes stiff & holds patient securely; Used for Lateral Position
  33. Patients who are on cardiac monitoring devices and are being moved from an ICU (or PACU) must be accompanied by a ____________ or __________.
    Must be accompanied by a Registed Nurse OR an Anesthesia care provider
  34. Always ________ the gurney and the bed before moving a patient.
  35. Underweight
    <18.5 BMI
  36. Cribs must always be equipped with a _________ _____ during transport.
    Plexiglas cover
  37. Normal Weight
    18.5-24.9 BMI
  38. Overweight
    25-29.9 BMI
  39. Mild Obesity
    27-30 BMI
  40. Obese
    >30 BMI
  41. BMI
    Body Mass Index
  42. DVT
    Deep Vein Thrombosis
  43. SCD
    Sequential Compression Device; assists in venous return
  44. Important Elements of Safe Positioning
    Knowledge of anatomy, physiology, & patient's specific medical condition; Planning; Teamwork
  45. Arms should never be extended away from the body at an angle greater than ______ degrees.
  46. Horseshoe Rest
    Padded, U-shaped attachment; supports forehead when patient is in prone position
  47. Positioning injuries usually are the result of pressure on neurovascular structures or moves made too _______.
  48. The _____ ______ ____ must give permission before any change is made in a patient's position.
    Anesthesia Care Provider
  49. Patient Conditions that Influence Positioning
    Image Upload 8
  50. Flexion
    Decrease in angle
  51. Extension
    Increase in angle
  52. Locations of Common Nerve & Vessel Injuries
    1. Ulnar Nerve @ condylar groove of elbow; 2. Ulnar Nerve @ cubital tunnel; 3. Peroneal & tibial nerves & vessels @ popliteal fossa 4. Brachial Plexus 5. Lumbosacral nerve roots
  53. Pregnant patients should be titled to _______
    Left, prevent pressure of inferior vena cava.
  54. Jackknife (Kraske) Surgical Position
    Face down, A** up!Image Upload 9
  55. Abdominal Prep
    Image Upload 10
  56. Breast & Thorax PrepImage Upload 11
  57. Hip Prep
    Image Upload 12
  58. Leg Prep
    Image Upload 13
  59. Neck Prep
    Image Upload 14
  60. Shoulder Prep
    Image Upload 15
  61. Vaginal Prep
    Image Upload 16
  62. Debridement
    The removal of devitalized tissue, debris, and foreign objects from a wound; Performed on trauma injuries, burns, and infected wounds
  63. Fenestrated Drape
    Drape w/ a hole or window; Positioned after other drapes and towels have been placed
  64. Impervious
  65. Incise Drape
    Plastic adhesive drape that is positioned over incision site after skin prep
  66. Residual Activity
    Antimicrobial action of an antiseptic or a disinfectant that continues after the solution has dried
  67. Retention Catheter
    Urinary Catheter that remains in place (aka Indwelling or Foley)
  68. Solution
    Any liquid antiseptic combined with water
  69. Single-stage Prep
    (aka Paint Prep) Performed using only antiseptic solution, which is painted on the skin at the operative site
  70. Straight Catheter
    Nonretention urinary catheter used to drain bladder one time
  71. SSI
    Surgical Site Infection
  72. Tincture
    Any liquid antiseptic combined with alcohol
  73. Current research demonstrates that shaving the skin _________ the risk of SSI.
  74. Hair Removal
    Keep razor on skin at all times to avoid 'micro-cuts'; Never shave eyebrows; Surgeon usually does the shaving
  75. Gentian Violet Ink
    Recommended for skin marking before surgery; Does not wash off, easily visible, antiseptic
  76. Alcohol solution contains _________ alcohol
  77. At 70% concentration, isopropyl alcohol is ___% effective against bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, & viruses
  78. Alcohol is not completely effective against bacterial _____
  79. Dessication
    Alcohol destroys microorganisms via this method; Dessication = Drying of cell proteins
  80. Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHG)
    Not a first choice skin prep; Not effective in presence of soap and organic debris such as skin oils, blood, & body fluids
  81. Iodophor
    (Iodine + Povidone) Combined w/ detergent & used for surgical hand scrub; 1st & 2nd degree chemical burns can result from improper prep technique or if patient is sensitive to iodine
  82. Triclosan
    Triclosan 1% is an antiseptic commonly found in deodorants, antibacterial soaps, & etc.
  83. Parachlorometaxylenol (Chloroxylenol)
    (PCMX) Labeled for use around eye, mouth, or genital area
  84. Hexachlorophene
    Readily absorbed through broken or damaged skin; In 1960s, was popular as infant bath soap & antiacne wash; Used as surgical prep in 1970s; Linked to CNS damage in infants
  85. Two-step Prep
    Includes skin scrub (wash) and antiseptic paint
  86. Two-step Prep Supplies
    Sterile gloves, Towels, Sponges, Sponge forceps, Antiseptic Prep Solution, Antiseptic scrub soap, Sterile water or saline, Several small basins, Cotton tipped applicators
  87. Skin prep is a _________ procedure
  88. Duraprep Surgical Solution
    Commonly used for patient prep; Contains iodine povacrylex and isopropyl alcohol; Self-contained in an applicator sponge
  89. ________________ is the most common solution used in eye preps
    Dilute povidone-iodine
  90. Eye Prep
    Includes eyelid, inner and outer canthus, brow, face to the chin line, starting at eyelid and working outward; Usually performed by surgeon
  91. Any prep sponge that touches the _________ must be discarded.
  92. Autograft
    Tissue is removed from one site on the patient and grafted to another site; Requires two separate preps
  93. Do not _____ antiseptic solutions, because this can alter their effect.
  94. Draping if performed immediately ____ skin prep.
  95. Most modern surgical instruments are made of
    Stainless Steel
  96. Chromium increases resistance to
  97. Blades #20-#25 fit which # handle?
    #4 handle
  98. Blades #10, #11, #12, and #15 fit which # handles?
    #3 #7 #9
  99. Detachable disposable blade & non disposable handle
  100. Non disposable handle and blade as a single unit
  101. What types of scissors may be used during a surgical procedure?
    Suture scissor, wire scissors, bandage/dressing scissors
  102. Why should scissors only be used to dissect tissue?
    Because it can dull the blades
  103. Designed to manipulate tissue to facilitate dissection or suturing or to reduce and stabilize fractured bone during internal fixation ---May or may not have ratcheted locking
    Grasping/ holding instruments
  104. Designed to occlude or constrict tissue and are constructed with opposing ring handles for fingers
    Clamping/ occluding
  105. Designed for exposure of the operative site
    Retractors/ viewing
  106. Retractors with a blunt edge
    Typically used to retract abdominal wall or abdominal thoracic organs
  107. Sharp rake-like retractors
    Used for retraction of nonmetal structures, such as fat or skin
  108. Single-hook or double-hook retractors
    Retractors that utilize the retraction of skin during plastic procedures
  109. These retractors may be bent into desired positions for various retraction duties
    Malleable retractors
  110. Malleable wire-like instruments for the exploration of a structure such as a fistula, duct, or vessel
  111. Dilators
    Instruments used to gradually dilate an orifice or duct to allow for introduction of larger instrumentation or to open a structure
  112. Needle holders
    Instruments used to hold a curved suture needle for suturing
  113. Suctioning
    Removal of blood and body fluid from an operative site to provide better visualization
  114. Microinstrumentation
    Instruments that are used to perform microsurgery that are very small, delicate, and precise. When used in conjunction with an operating microscope, allow manipulation and repair of very small structures or tissues
  115. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, The three phases together is known as
    Instrument cycle
  116. Preoperative instrument handling
    Organize and prepare for use on the back table and mayo stand
  117. Instaoperative instrument handling
    Critical thinking and interactive tasks. Anticipate these needs through knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology, operative pathology, and the planned operative procedure.
  118. Postoperative instrument handling
    cleaning, inspection, reassembling, sterilization, and storage
  119. Endoscopes
    Used for diagnosis, biopsy, visualization, and/or repair of a structure within a body cavity or the interior of a hollow organ. (enter through a small skin incision)
    The encephaloscope is used for examining cavities in the brain.
    The laryngoscope is used to examine the larynx, the multi-functional organ in the neck containing the vocal cords.
    The laryngoscope is used to examine the larynx, the multi-functional organ in the neck containing the vocal cords.
    The esophagoscope is used to examine the inside of the esophagus.
    The thoracoscope is an endoscope for examining the pleural cavity through an intercostal space.
    The thoracoscope is an endoscope for examining the pleural cavity through an intercostal space.
    The angioscope is used to observe blood vessels. It is normally a very narrow (eg 0.5mm) flexible fiber endoscope. The image transfer is usually accomplished with fused silica image conduit with outer diameter of 0.5mm or even 0.35mm. The objective lens system is by necessity of its small size a Selfoc™ lens.
    The nephroscope is used in the examination of the kidneys.
    The colonoscope is used to examine the lower part of the bowel.
    The proctoscope is a speculum for inspecting the rectum
    The arthroscope is an endoscope for examining the interior of a joint. The most common arthroscope by far has a 4mm diameter with a 30 degree direction-of-view and is used for diagnosing and treating knee problems. Arthroscopes are rigid devices made up of a stack of optical lenses. The arthroscope eyepiece is normally interfaced with a video camera.
    The rhinoscope is a speculum used in nasal examinations.
    The esophagoscope is used for examining the passage extending from the pharynx to the stomach.
    The bronchoscope is a device for examining the interior of the bronchi.
    The mediastinoscope is used to examine the mediastinum whcih is the mass of tissues and organs separating the two lungs. This includes the heart and its large vessels, the trachea, the esophagus, etc.
    The gastroscope is an endoscope for inspecting the interior of the stomach.
    The laparoscope is used to examine the peritoneal cavity and is the most common endoscope utilized by the general surgeon. The most common laparoscope is a rigid unit 10mm in diameter with approximately 300 insertion depth.
    The amnioscope is used to examine the fetus through the cervical canal before the membrane is broken.
    The cystoscope is used for examining the urinary tract. It is similar optically to the arthroscope but has a longer insertion depth.
    The hysteroscope is an endoscope used to examine the canal of the uterine cervix and the uterine cavity.
  140. Choledochoscopes
    Exploration of the biliary system
  141. Ventriculoscopes
    Exploration of the brain's ventricular system
  142. Fetoscopes
    visualization of a fetus
  143. What are some ways that power instruments are powered?
    Compressed air, nitrogen, electricity, battery
  144. What are some functions of power tools?
    Dill holes, saw, reshape bone, drive pins, cut skin, and/or sand
  145. Microscopes
    Binocular apparatus that uses bent light waves for variable magnification of tissues during microsurgery
  146. Insufflator
    The machine that infuses the CO2 gas into the abdominal cavity
  147. What is the purpose of the insufflator?
    Maintains the internal body temperature of the patient and it also expand that abdominal cavity with CO2 gas for space to work for laparoscopic procedures
  148. Nerve stimulators
    Produce very small electric currents that, when applied to tissue, help to identify and preserve essential nerves for cranial, facial, neck , or hand reconstructive procedures
  149. What are the components of the suction system?
    Vacuum couse, vacuum source tubing, collection unit, tubing, suction tip
  150. What are a tourniquets two main purposes?
    1. The amount of blood lost by patient is minimized 2. Visualization of the surgical site for the sterile ram members is improved.
  151. What are the components of a tourniquet?
    Cuff, tubing, pressure device, power source
  152. What is the tourniquet pressure for the upper extremity?
    Appx. 30-70 mm Hg higher than the patient's systolic BP
  153. These devices are applied to the patient's leg to prevent venous stasis in the operating room
    Sequential Compression Devices
  154. What is the purpose of surgical drapes?
    Serves as a barrier to isolate and protect the operative site from contaminants and microbes that can cause a SSI
  155. Catheters
    Used to remove fluid or other objects, such as thrombi and stones from the body
  156. The suffix -tome refers to an instrument for
  157. Serrations or teeth
    Grooves located on the jaws of surgical instruments that are either longitudinal, cross-hatched, or horizontal are called
  158. An instrument with a sharp point and cutting edges that allow for penetration of a body cavity for the drainage of fluid or the introduction of an endoscope is called a
  159. What is used to ensure that all necessary instruments from each category are included in the set being used?
    Count sheet
  160. Uses liquid nitrogen, Freon, or carbon Dioxide gas to deliver extreme cold through insulated probes
    Cryotherapy units
  161. Carbon Dioxide gas is infused into the abdominal cavity through a
    Verress insufflation needle
  162. Used to measure urinary output over an extended period or to provide bladder decompression
    Foley Catheter
  163. This catheter is used to decompress the kidney, identify and protect the ureters with the assistance of a cystoscope
    Ureteral catheters
  164. This catheter is used to infuse fluids, obtain a diagnosis, monitor body functions and remove thrombi
    Intravascular Catheters
  165. Palpation
    When doctor presses lightly on the surface of the body to feel organs or tissues
  166. Auscultation
    Listening for sounds within body- Making certain the condition of the lungs, heart, pleura, abdomen, and other organs with a stethoscope
  167. -Graph
    A pictorial representation
  168. Obstruction
    Blocking or clogging
  169. -Gram
    an imageEx: Mammogram, Radiogram, Myelogram
  170. Cystoscopy
    Examination by means of a tubular instrument equipped with a light & used to examine the interior of the Urinary Bladder and Ureters
  171. Prosthesis
    A device, external or implanted, that substitutes for a missing part of body
  172. Symptom
    Departure from the normal in function, appearance, or sensation felt by the patient (SUBJECTIVE)Physician uses:- Direct/indirect visualization- Enhanced visualization- External/internal palpation- Auscultation
  173. Sign
    Abnormality indicative of disease, can be discovered by the physician (OBJECTIVE)
  174. Radiography
    "Roentgenography"- "Rads" = Radiation Absorbed Dosage- Identifies location of abnormalities & foreign bodies- Locates left instruments- Discover fluid or air in body cavities- Verify location for operative procedure
  175. Mammography
    - Detects tumors of the breast in early stages- Mammogram = Radiograph taken during a Mammography
  176. Myelography
    Evaluates the spine for patients with neck, back, leg pain- Inject contrast media into spine- MRI replaced this mostly
  177. Fluroscopy
    - Views anatomic structures during procedure- "C-Arm"
  178. Angiography
    - Used to study blood or lymph vessels- Used for Peripheral Vascular Disease (P.V.D)"Seldinger Technique" - A procedure to create an easy entrance into most vessels of the bodySaphenous Vein is used for the insertion of an Angiographic Catheter
  179. Needed for Angiography:X-ray
    Must be capable of making both "Fluoroscopic" and "Still" pictures
  180. Needed for Angiography:Film chargers
    It exchanges film fast after each exposure so that the area under study is completely outlined
  181. Needed for Angiography:Pressure Injections
    Useful for areas of nonselective angiography where large amounts of contrast must be injected quickly- Universally used for Aorta & Left ventricle
  182. Needed for Angiography:Contrast Media
    - Solution used to enhance visualization of structures- Solution that is Radiopaque (visible on X-rays)- I.V- Ex: Hypaque, Cystografin, Renografin
  183. Signs of reaction to contrast media
    1. Rash2. Extreme Agitation3. Sudden body temp. elevation4. Muscle, back, joint pain5. Respiratory distress6. Tachycardia7. Hypotension
  184. Needed for Angiography:Catheters
    Smaller the radius of the catheter, the safer the procedure- Should be cleaned with normal saline/heparin mixture to prevent clots
  185. Needed for Angiography:Guidewires
    Guide the catheter to its proper location"J-Wire"
  186. Needed for Angiography:Needle/Cannula
    Most common size is an 18 Fr. (French)Most common type is Potts-Cournand
  187. Cardiac Catheterization allows?
    1. Evaluation of Heart function2. Visualization of Coronary Arteries3. Visualization of Cardiac Chambers4. Measurement of pressures within the Cardiac Chambers
  188. Cardiac Catheterization is used to diagnose?
    1. Coronary Artery Disease2. Valvular Disease3. Pulmonary Disease4. Congenital Heart Disease- Percutaneous Femoral Route is most popular
  189. Cholangiography
    Uses catheter and contrast media to see Calculi (stones) or obstruction of the biliary systemStudy of the Gall bladder
  190. Computed Axial Tomography(CT-Scan or CAT-Scan)
    - "Slices" for examination (2-10 mm thick)- Better than MRI for brain injuries- Detects fresh bleeding & is faster- Detects masses in body- Use of contrast media (Iodine based)
  191. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    - Combination of CT & Radioisotope Brain Scanning- Identifies how different areas of the brain function- Highlights chemical/metabolic activity
  192. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    - No radiation- "SLICES" can be in any direction- Most useful for viewing soft tissue- Contrast media is used (NOT iodine based)
  193. Ultrasonography
    Turns sound waves that reflect from tissue to an image- Cannot pass through air so not used for lungs- Most common: Fetus- No ionizing radiation
  194. Echocardiography
    Non-Invasive study- Provides 2 dimensional image of the Heart- Uses Doppler techniques to map blood flow around the Heart
  195. Dopper Ultrasonography
    Non-invasive- Measures blood flow by transmitting sound of moving red blood cells
  196. Isotope Scanning "Nuclear Medicine"
    - Radioactive Isotope is injected- Pictures are taken- "hot" and "cold" spotsEx: MIGB scan is used to identify Adrenal Gland
  197. Radiation Therapy
    Radiation kills cells by interfering with their metabolic activity- Used in pre-determined doses to treat Neoplasms
  198. Hematologic Studies
    Venous or Arterial blood is drawn from the patient for visual or computerized examination
  199. Urinalysis
    Urine collected over a 24 hour period is tested for:Electrolytes & Nitrogenous Waste
  200. Frozen Sections
    - Freezing the tissue sample- Slicing it into sections- Staining- Microscopic view
  201. Bacteriologic Tests
    Culture & Sensitivity (C&S) is used when tissue/fluid is suspected of being infected- Gram stain: Blue +, Pink -
  202. Clinical Pathology
    Use of laboratory methods to establish a clinical diagnosis of a disease by examining tissue/organs
  203. Surgical Pathology
    Study of alterations in body tissues removed by surgical intervention
  204. Needle Aspiration
    Needle is used to aspirate fluid from a lesion, cyst, abscess, joint, or body cavity- Performed under CT Scan or Ultrasound
  205. Incisional
    Portion of mass is removed
  206. Excisional
    Entire mass is removedPerformed Endoscopically
  207. Brush
    Stiff brushes of nylon/steel are passed through endoscope to the interior of respiratory tree/urinary tract
  208. Bone Marrow
    Trocar puncture is placed into bone through a small skin incisionMost Common: Sternum & Iliac Crest
  209. Percutaneous Needle
    Tissue is obtained from an internal organ or solid mass using hollow needle- Utilizes Fluoroscopy, Ultrasound, or CT Scanning
  210. Punch
    Instrument with a circular sharp hollow tip is used to sample skin lesions
  211. Labeling Specimen should include:
    1. Patients name2. Date3. Identification Number4. Type of Specimen5. Site of Specimen
  212. Permanent Sections
    - Specimen is placed in a fixative for hours so cells become firm- Remove all water & replace with paraffin- Embedded in wax- Sliced tissue paper thin & put on glass slides- BEST ONE
  213. Cytologic Smears
    "Smeared" on slides - Instant diagnosis is possible
  214. Cultures
    - Refrigerated & sent to lab- Stored in incubator- Sterile conditions
  215. Stones
    Placed in DRY container so they do not dissolve
  216. Body Fluids
    Can be cultured or transferred in a syringe/container
  217. Thoracentesis
    Placement of needle into the posterior portion of the pleural space for analysis of pleural effusion- Removal of fluid from pleural cavity
  218. Electrocardiography"ECG" or "EKG"
    Used for detection of all forms of heart disease - Performed by placing electrodes to determine activity of heartHolter monitor: 24 hr monitoring for asymptomatic & symptomatic dysrhythmias
  219. Electroencephalography "EEG"
    Recording of the activity of BrainDiagnosis:1. Seizure disorders2. Brain tumors3. EpilepsyCan be used intra-op
  220. Electromyography "EMG"
    Records electrical activity of Skeletal Muscle
  221. Pulse Oximetry
    Measures Arterial Saturation of hemoglobin with O2 by passing a light through tissues to determine density of blood
  222. Capnography
    Estimates Arterial levels of CO2 non-invasively End-Tidal CO2 = amount of CO2 exhaled
  223. Spirometry
    Non-invasive- Evaluates patients respiratory status- Displays patients lung capacity, resistance, and ventilatory pressureCOPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseARDS: Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrone
  224. Plethysmograph
    Instrument for determining:1. Changes in volume of an extremity2. Changes in volume in the amount of blood present in extremity
  225. Phleborhegraph
    Technique in which rhythmic changes in Venous volume in legs associated with respiration are recorded- Can diagnose Deep Vein Thrombosis
  226. Mayo
    mayo stand is where instruments are placed, mayo scissors also called suture scissors they can be straight or curved. Curved are for dense tissue and straight is for sutures. Image Upload 17
  227. Westcott
    small curved scissors used for neuro, eyes, hands, small delicate procedures.Image Upload 18
  228. Jorgenson
    surgical scissors that are like mayo scissors but with a greater curve. dissecting scissors used in GYN and general procedures. Image Upload 19
  229. Metzenbaum
    surgical scissor with long neck, used to dissect delicate tissues. Image Upload 20
  230. Tenotomy
    Dissect fine tissue (like in hand surgery), to penetrate tissue, spread and cut tissue.Image Upload 21
  231. Potts-Smith
    small, long scissors with angled tip. To extend venotomy or arteriotomy incisions. Image Upload 22
  232. Most Common Blade
    The #10 is the most common blade and usually goes with #3 handle.
  233. #12 Blade
    The #12 blades is used almost exclusively for tonsillectomy.
  234. #20 Blade
    The #20 blade is occasionally used for long and deep abdominal incision.
  235. Self-retaining retractors
    are balfour general, weitlaner retractor, Charnley retractor.
  236. Hand-help retractors
    are hibbs retractor, cobra retractor, hogmann retractor, benett retractor, senn retractors, Kelly “finger” retractor, Harrington retractor, Deaver, Richardson, army-navy, Volkmann.
  237. Frazier
    is for more detailed and delicate surgeries.
  238. Yankauer and Poole
    are for aspiration of abdominal fluids. The angled yankauer was designed for pharyngeal suctioning furing tonsillectomies. Poole is for rapid and high amounts of fluid suction.
  239. Laparotomy sponges
    the largest and most absorbent and come in many sizes and packs of 5, they are used for large incision cases.
  240. Raytec sponges
    come in 4x4 or 4x8 and in packs of 10, they are usually for smaller incision cases and have radiopaque strips.
  241. Cottonoids
    are very small sponges used in neuro and for precise bleeders, they come in packs of 10.Image Upload 23
  242. Kittners
    are small rolls of cotton tape that are used to aid the surgeon in blunt dissection of tissue, they come in packs of 5.Image Upload 24
  243. Tonsil sponges
    used in tonsillectomy’s to back the bed during removal of tonsils, the have a string and come in packs of 5.Image Upload 25
  244. Pneumatic tourniquet
    A tourniquet that is inflated with air to apply pressure on the limb.
  245. Sequential compression device
    is a method of DVT prevention that improves blood flow in the legs. SCD's are shaped like “sleeves” that wrap around the legs and inflate with air one at a time. This imitates walking and helps prevent blood clots.
  246. Doppler
    A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate the blood flow through your blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells
  247. Thoracentesis
    - is a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall. This procedure is done to remove excess fluid, known as a pleural effusion, from the pleural space to help you breathe easier.
  248. Culture and sensitivity
    A culture is a test to find germs (such as bacteria or a fungus) that can cause an infection. A sensitivity test checks to see what kind of medicine, such as an antibiotic, will work 8best to treat the illness or infection.
  249. Cut-down
    creation of a small incised opening, especially in a vein (venous cutdown) for venipuncture and venous access.
  250. Counting Procedure
    1-initial count when the tray is assembled 2-initial count during setup3-closing counts (first closing count)4-final count (second closing count)5-Incorrect count
  251. When we do the first closing count?
    when the surgeon starts sawing up the wound
  252. What are the 3 counts we need to do during procedure?
    1-before the case starts2-at the beginning of closure3- and at skin closure
  253. Surgical count is done by?
    the scrub and the circulator "TOGETHER."
  254. Everything is counted
    one by one
  255. Parts of instrument
    Image Upload 26
  256. Betadine
    Used for open wounds and mucus membranes.
  257. What position would facilitate exposure of the operative area during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy?
    Reverse trendelenburg with slight lilt to the left.
  258. Which of the following is a potential complication of the lithotomy position?
    Blood pressure may go down as the legs are lowered fingers need to be protected from scissoring injury.
  259. which area of the body can you access from supine position
    anterior lower extremity, pelvis, abdomen, chest/breast, shoulder, head and neck, upper extremity
  260. which area of the body can you access from the trendelenburg positon
    increases blood flow to upper body to prevent shock, used to displace the abdominopelvic organs cephalad
  261. what is the reverse trendelenburg position used for
    to displace the abdomonial organs caudad to probide better visualization of the surgical site.
  262. what is the fowler's position used for
    provides improved access to the surgical sit and reduces blood flow tothe upper body, promotes venous drainage and facilitates respiration
  263. which part of the body is used while in fowler's position
    breast, head and neck, and shoulder
  264. which area of the body is work on while in lithotomy position
    perineum, anus and rectum, vagina, urethra
  265. while in prone position what regions of the body may be access while in this position
    posterior lower extremity, dorsal body surface, spine, posterior cranium
  266. while in kraske position/jackknife position what areas of the body is accessed
    anus and the pilonidal area
  267. what is the other names of lateral position
  268. what is the other names of lateral position
    lateral recumbent or lateral decubitus positon
  269. which body regions may be accessed while in lateral position
    retroperitoneal space, hip, and hemithorax
  270. It is recommended that hair always be removed prior to surgery because the large amount of bacteria on hair can cause ssi
  271. transient organisms are also known are normal flora.
    false, transient live on skin.
  272. patient may be instructed to wash their skin with CHG solution several days prior to surgery.
  273. A surgical prep is performed after the patient has been draped.
  274. An area that is considered contaminated should be _____
    scrubbed last or seperately
  275. If used as part of the skin prep, a ___ solution be allowed to dry before electrocautery.
    none of the above, watch for alcohol
  276. A safe prep solution for a facial procedure on a patient with an iodine allergy would be
    triclosan 1%.
  277. A patient that has a shellfish allergy may be allergic to iodine. which prep agent would not be used?
  278. Which is not a name for tissue forceps?
    Shnidt. The other names are rat tooth, pick ups, and thumb forceps.
  279. A ventriculoscope is used to visualize the internal structures of the
  280. the device used to fill a patients abdomen with co2 gas prior to surgery is called
  281. the most common type of tourniquet in the OR is
  282. Intraoperative fluoroscopy for cholangiography would require which of the following
    radiolucent OR table
  283. Which condition of excess fluid is analyzed by thorocentesis
    plueral effusion
  284. what is the name of the 24 hour monitoring device for cardiac dysrythmias?
    Holter monitor
Card Set
ST midterm