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Distinguishing /r/ from /l/
Three formants are required for perception of /r/ & /l/
F3 distinguishes /r/ from /l/ - F3 is the lowest for /r/ being between 1200-1800 Hz, while F3 for /l/ is between 2400-3000 Hz
In most vowel contexts, F3 for /l/ does not vary in frequency
Distinguishing /w/ from /j/
O’Connor et al – synthesized perceptually acceptable /w/’s and /j/’s with only 2 Formants
F1 for both sounds is similar – very low
F2 distinguished these sounds as F2 for /j/ is much higher (2300 Hz) than for /w/ (900 Hz).