Cardiology drugs

  1. How do diuretics work?
    They act on the kidney to increase excretion of water and sodium chloride, by blocking the reabsorption of electrolytes in the distal tubules.

    • They are used to oedema in cirrhosis, CCF and renal disease.
    • Thiazides are used to treat hypertension.
    • Loop diuretics are powerful top shelf drugs, they have a very rapid onset and short duration of action. They can causes serious electrolyte imbalance and dehydration.
    • Potassium-sparing: weak diuretics, usually used with loop or thiazides to prevent hypokalaemia.
  2. Name some thiazide diuretics?
    • Metolazone: activity between thiazide & loop.
    • Bendroflumethiazide: widely used.

    • Mild heart failure and hypertension.
    • Bind to & inhibit NaCl synporter in distal tubule.
    • Contraindications: gout, NID Diabetes.
    • Adverse effects: ↓Na, increases plasma glucose, uric acid and lipids.
  3. Name some Loop diuretics?
    • Furosemide: used to reduce peripheral and pulmonary oedema. Unlike thiazides, they are effective in patients with impaired renal function.
    • They inhibit the Na/k/2Cl co-transporter in the ascending limb of loop of Henle.
    • Diuresis usually occurs about 4hrs after dose.
    • Can also be used to treat severe hypercalcaemia.
    • Adverse effects: ↓K+ metabolic alkalosis, hypovolaemia, ototoxicity.
  4. Name some potassium-sparing diuretics?
    • Spironolactone: blocks aldosterone, used mainly for ascites, Conn's and heart failure.
    • Amiloride & triamterene: blocks Na+ channels.
    • K-sparing and ACE inhibitors together increase the likelihood of hyperkalaemia.
    • Adverse effects: hyperkalaemia, anti-androgen effects such as gynaecomastia esp with spironolactone.
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Cardiology drugs
cardio drugs for 3.2md