Name an anti-thyroid drug used to treat hyperthyrodism?
inhibiting peroxidase-catalysed reactions
necessary for iodine organification.
Not given in pregnancy - low thyroid levels can cause
safe to give to pregnant women, can cause hepatic failure and agranulocytosis.
TSH should be <2.5 before trying to get pregnant.
What do iodides treat?
Preparation for thyroidectomy
-It shrinks the size and vascularity of the gland.
- It reduces thyrotoxic fairly quickly (2-7 days).
Not useful long-term as its anti-thyroid action diminishes over time.
How is hypothyroidism treated?
(L-thyroxine) which is synthetic T4.
Treatment is assesed by monitoring plasma TSH levels, which fall when the optimun dose is achieved.
Hypothyroid coma: Liothyronine (T3) & hydrocortisone given IV.
What is metformin?
1st line drug for T2D which aren't underweight.
Reduces hepatic glucose production.
Acts peripherally to increase glucose uptake.
Adverse effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, lactic acidosis.
How do sulphonylureas and repaglinide work?
They close K
channels causing depolarisation of the beta cells resulting in
increased insulin release.
For patients who are near their ideal weight and diet is not a factor in their hyperglycaemia. They must have partially functioning beta cells.
: GIT disturbances, rashes.
Contraindicated in severe hyperglycaemia, surgery and major illness (as insulin should be given instead).
How do Glitazones works?
Increase sensitivity to insulin.
They bind to PPAR-γ which increases transcription of insulin-sensitive genes.
Describe incretin analogues?
Incretins stimulate the release of insulin.
There are 2 types
: GLP-1 and GIP.
They're given subcutaneously with metformin and/or sulphonylureas.
Can cause nausea and vomiting.
Drugs for 3.2md