Chapter 3/4 Review

  1. Neuron size?
    up to 2 meters long
  2. Human cell size?
    10-15 micrometers in diameter
  3. Egg cell size?
    100 micrometer
  4. Limitations on cell size
    cell growth increases volume more than surface area
  5. Plasma membrane
    surrounds cell, made of proteins and lipids
  6. Cytoplasm contains?
    organelles, cytoskeleton, cytosol (ICF), ECF
  7. Membrane Lipids
    98% of molecules in plasma membrane are lipids
  8. Phospholipids
    75% of membrane lipids are phospholipids
  9. Hydrophilic heads
    face water on each side of membrane
  10. Hydrophobic tails
    directed toward the center avoid water
  11. Cholesterol
    20% of the membrane lipids, stiffen membrane
  12. Glycolipids
    5% of the membrane lipids, contributes to glycocalyx
  13. Membrane proteins
    2% of the molecules in plasma membrane, 50% of its weight
  14. Transmembrane proteins
    pass through membrane
  15. Peripheral proteins
    adhere to one face of the membrane, help anchor the membrane
  16. Receptors
    surface proteins on plasma membrane of tarfet cell
  17. Channel proteins
    transmembrane proteins with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through membrane in response to stimuli, Ligand, Voltage-regulated, mechanically regulated gates
  18. Channelopathies
    family of diseases that result form defects in channel proteins
  19. Carriers or pumps
    Transmembrane proteins bind to glucose, electrolytes, and other solutes
  20. Down a gradient
    it is a carrier and no ATP is required
  21. Up a gradient
    it is called a pump and ATP is required
  22. Glycoproteins
    are the identity markers for our immune system, are part of the surface gel called the glycocalyx
  23. First messenger
    the chemical that binds to a receptor is the first messenger, activates G-protein,which signals enzyme Adenylate Cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP (Second messenger)
  24. Second messenger
    cAMP activates a kinase in the cytosol, kinases add phosphate group to other enzymes and turn on internal cell
  25. Modern drugs
    up to 60% of modern drugs work by altering activity of G-protein
  26. Glycocalyx
    Cell identity marker
  27. Cilia
    airlike processes 7-10 micrometers long, on surface of respiratory tract and uterine tubes
  28. Axoneme
    core of cilia that is the structural basis for ciliary movement
  29. Has 9+2 structure of microtubules
    Nine triplets of microtubules form the basal body inside the cell membrane, anchor cilium, Dynein arms crawl up adjacent microtubule, bending the cilia
  30. Active transport (consumes ATP)
    Active transport, vesicular transport, carrier mediated transport
  31. Filtration
    a process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure
  32. Simple diffusion
    the net movement of particles from area of high concentration to low
  33. Factors affecting diffusion
    temperature, concentration, surface area, membrane permeability, and weight decreases rate
  34. Osmosis
    flow of water form one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other
  35. Aquaporins
    channel proteins in plasma membrane specialized for passage of water
  36. Osmolality
    number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water
  37. Osmolarity
    number of osmoles of solutes per liter of solutions
  38. Tonicity
    ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure in a cell
  39. One Osmole
    1 mole of dissolved particles
  40. Blood Plasma
    300 mOsm/L
  41. Hypotonic solution
    cell bursts
  42. Hypertonic solution
    cell shirvels
  43. As the solute concentration rises, the rate of transport rises, but only to a point
    Transport maximum
  44. Uniport
    carries only one solute at a time
  45. Symport
    carries two or more solutes simultaneously in same direction (contransport)
  46. Antiport
    carries two or more solutes in opposite directions (countertransport)
  47. Carrier mediated transport
    facilitated diffusion, active transport
  48. Facilitated diffsion
    carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient, does not consume ATP
  49. Active transport
    carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane up (against) its concentration gradient, ATP is consumed
  50. Secondary active transport
    steep concentration gradient maintained between one side of the membrane and the other, does not consume but relies on Na/K pump
  51. Vesicular transport
    processes that move larged particles fluid droplets, or numerous molecules at one through the membrane
  52. Endocytosis
    vesicular processes that bring material into the cell
  53. Phagocytosis
    "cell eating", engulfing large particles, pseudopods, phagosomes, macrophages
  54. Pinocytosis
    "cell drinking" taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell
  55. Clathrin
    coated vesicle, uptake of LDL of bloodstream
  56. Cytoskeleton
    collection of filaments and cylinders, composed of microfilaments 6nm terminal web, intermediate fibers 8-10nm support, microtubules 25nm tubulin
  57. Membraneous organelles
    nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, ER, golgi
  58. Nonmembraneous organelles
    ribosomes, centrosomes, centrioles, basal bodies
  59. Smooth ER
    lack ribosomes, detoxify alcohols and drugs, manufactures all membranes of the cell, synthesizes steroids
  60. Ribosomes
    made in nucleoli, they read genetic code of mRNA
  61. Lysosomes
    package of enzymes bound a single unit membrane
  62. Autophagy
    digest and dispose of worn out mitochondria and other organelles
  63. Autolysis
    cell suicide, some cells are destroyed once their job is completed
  64. Peroxisomes
    produced by Smooth ER
  65. Centriole
    a short cylindrical assemby of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each, play a role in cell division
  66. Inclusions
    stored cellular product, foreign bodies, not essential for cell survival
  67. Stored cellular products
    glycogen granules, pigments, and fat droplets
  68. Foreign bodies
    viruses, intracellular bacteria, dust particles
  69. Enucleate cells
    no nucleus (mature RBC)
  70. Multinucleate cells
    2-50 nuclei (skeletal muscle)
  71. Nuclear envelope
    surrounds nucleus, has two membranes
  72. Nuclear pores
    perforate nuclear envelope
  73. Nucleoplasm
    material within nucleus
  74. Chromatin
    DNA and associated proteins
  75. Nucleoli
    dark staining, produce ribosome subunits
  76. What do nuclear pores do?
    formed by ring shaped complex of proteins, regulate traffic through envelope, holds nuclear evelope together
  77. Nucleosomes
    cluster of eight proteins, histones, serve as spools to protect and organize DNA
  78. Supercoils of DNA
    preparation for cell division
  79. Nucleotides consist of?
    Sugar-ribose, deoxyribose, Phosphate group, Nitrogenous Base
  80. Purines
    double carbon nitrogen ring, Adenine, Guanine
  81. Pyrimidines
    single carbon nitrogen ring, Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine
  82. Gene
    sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for one polypeptide
  83. Genome
    all the genes for one person
  84. tRNA size?
    70-90 bases
  85. mRNA size?
    over 10,000 bases
  86. DNA size?
    over a billion bases
  87. Mitosis
    cell replicaiton
  88. Meiosis
    cell reproduction (gametes)
  89. Base triplet
    sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for 1 amino acid
  90. How many codons?
  91. Start codon
    AUG Methionine
  92. Exons
    sense portions
  93. Introns
    nonsense portions (must be removed)
  94. DNA and Peptide Formation Six Step
    1.DNA Double Helix, 2.DNA Coding Strand, 3.Codons of mRNA, 4.Anticodons of tRNA, 5.Amino Acids, 6.Peptide
  95. Chaperones
    Assist is proper folding of new proteins, may escort protein to destination in cell, stress or heat shock proteins
  96. Signal peptide
    amino acid sequence that causes polyribosome to migrate to rough ER and enter cisterna
  97. Modifications in RER cisterna
    signal peptide removed, may remove amino acids, fold protein, form disulfide bridges, or add CHO groups
  98. DNA unwinds (DNA Replication)
    from histones
  99. DNA Helicase (DNA Replication)
    opens short segments, called replication fork
  100. Replication by (DNA Replication)
    DNA polymerase
  101. Semiconservative replication
    each new DNA has one new helix and the other helix conserved from parent DNA
  102. Error rates in bacteria
    3 errors per 100,000 bases copied
  103. Error rates in DNA
    1 per 1,000,000,000
  104. Mutations
    changes in DNA structure due to replication errors or environmental factors
  105. Mutations cause
    no effect, kill cell, turn it cancerous, cause genetic defects
  106. Interphase is divided into
    G1, S, G2
  107. G1
    Normal cellular function, gain full set of organelles
  108. S
    DNA replication
  109. G2
    Preparation for mitosis, replicates centrioles, synthesizes enzymes for cell division
  110. M Phase
    nuclear and cytoplasmic division
  111. G0 Phase
    cells that have left the cycle
  112. Functions of mitosis
    embryonic development, tissue growth, replacement of old and dead cells
  113. Mitosis Prophase
    chromatin supercoils into chromosomes, nuclear envelope disintegrates, centrioles sport microtubules (mitotic spindle) and move to poles, nucleoli disintegrates, spindle apparatus is completed
  114. Mitosis Metaphase
    chromosomes line up at equator, spindle fibers attach to centromere, asters anchor centrioles to plasma membrane
  115. Mitosis Anaphase
    centromeres divide, spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite poles
  116. Mitosis Telophase
    chromatin uncoils, nuclear envelope forms and nucleoli form, mitotic spindle breaks down
  117. Cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm (cleavage furrow)
  118. Cells divide when
    cells are large enough, DNA replicated, adequate supply of nutrients, growth factor stimulation, open space in tissue
  119. Cell stop dividing when
    loss of growth factor, contact inhibition
  120. Tumors
    abnormal growth, when cells multiply faster than they die
  121. Oncology
    study of tumors
  122. Carcinogens chemical
    cigarette, food preservatives
  123. Carcinogens viruses
    type 2 herpes simplex in uterus, hepatits B in liver
  124. Defenses against mutagens
    scavenger cells, peroxisomes, nuclear enzymes, tumor necrosis factor TNF
  125. Karyotypes
    chart of chromosome at metaphase by size, structure
  126. Homologous chromosome
    22 pairs autosomes, sex chromosome, 2 chromosomes in each pair one from each parent
  127. Germ cell
    Gamete, sperm and egg cells, haploid
  128. Somatic cells
    all other cells beside reproductive, diploid
  129. Allele
    two homologous chromosomes have some gene at same locus, may be different forms of gene
  130. Dominant allele
    produces normal, functional protein
  131. Recessive allele
    when both alleles are recessive produces abnormal protein or no protein
  132. Gene pool
    collective genetic make-up of whole population
  133. Multiple alleles
    more than 2 alleles for a trait
  134. Codominant
    both alleles expressed, like AB blood type
  135. Incomplete dominance
    phenotype intermediate between traits for each allele (pink flower)
  136. Polygenic inheritance
    2 or more genes combine their effects to produce single phenotype trait such as skin color
  137. Pleiotropy
    single gene causes multiple traits, such as sickle cell disease, anemia, weakness
  138. Penetrance
    % of population to express predicted phenotype
Card Set
Chapter 3/4 Review