Perio PP16

  1. Local contributing factors are
    oral conditions that increase a person’s susceptibility to periodontal disease in specific sites
    • –Increase plaque pathogenicity due to Calculus
    • –Increase plaque biofilm retention due to Faulty restoration
    • –Cause direct damage to the periodontium due to Food impaction, poorly fitting appliance
  3. The cause of gingival inflammation is
    bacterial plaque biofilm
  4. The primary effect of calculus is not __________ but is due to ___________
    • (as was originally thought) mechanical irritation
    • its always being covered with a layer of living bacterial plaque biofilm
  5. __________ makes up 70 to 90% of supragingival calculus and consist of
    • Inorganic mineral content
    • Primarily calcium phosphate
    • Calcium carbonate
    • Magnesium phosphate
  6. Organic portion of calculus makes up ___ to ___% and consist of
    • 10 to 30%
    • Plaque biofilm – living bacteria
    • Dead epithelial cells and white blood cells
  7. As calculus ages the inorganic components
    change through different crystalline forms
  8. Newly formed calculus contains what inorganic component
  9. calculus less than 6 months old contain what inorganic component
    –octacalcium phosphate
  10. Mature calculus contain what kind of inorganic component
    –primarily hydroxyapatite
  11. supragingival calculus appearance is ______ due to _______
    • yellowish-white
    • proteins in saliva
  12. supragingival calculusCan be found on any tooth surface BUT, most abundant on
    • –the buccal surfaces of maxillary molars opposite Stenson’s duct, and
    • –on the lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth opposite Wharton’s duct
  13. SUBGINGIVAL CALCULUS shape is _______ and the appearance is
    • –most often flattened guided by the pocket wall
    • –Usually dark brown to black in color due to deposition of proteins located in blood in the gingival crevicular fluid
    • 1. Attachment by means of the organic pellicle
    • Most commonly on enamel surfacesEasily removed because the calculus is on the surface of the pellicle and not locked into the tooth surface
    • 2. Attachment to irregularities in the tooth surface
    • Irregularities include cracks, tiny openings where Sharpey fibers were detached, grooves in cementum, scratches from previous instrumentation
    • Complete calculus removal is difficult because calculus is embedded in defects
    • 3.Attachment by direct contact of the calculus and the tooth surface
    • Matrix of calculus deposit is interlocked with the inorganic crystals of the tooth
    • Deposits are difficult to remove
  15. Mineralization of calculus can begin within ______ hours with maturation occurring in about ___days
    • 24 to 72
    • 12
  16. The morphology (surface features) of a tooth that can increase biofilm retention, include
    • –Poorly contoured restoration
    • –Untreated tooth decay
    • –Grooves or concavities in the tooth surface
  17. What is Pathogenicity
    the ability of the bacteria in a biofilm to produce periodontal disease
    • Food impaction
    • Patient habits
    • Faulty restorations
    • Occlusal forces
  19. What are some patient habits that contribute to periodontal disease
    • Mouth Breathing: Localized inflammation and gingival enlargement usually affecting anterior teeth due to drying effect
    • Toothbrush Abrasion
    • Acute – scuffing of epithelium
    • Chronic – gingival recession with loss of tooth structure
  20. The biologic width is the ____ and atleast ___ mm
    space on the tooth surface occupied by the junctional epithelium (the most apical part of the gingival sulcus and the alveolar crest) and the connective tissue fibers
  21. Crown Margins should be ____ not ______
    intracrevicular not subgingival
  22. Describe First molar loss syndrome
    • 2nd and 3rd molars drift mesially and tilt resulting in spaces and loss of vertical dimension
    • Mandibular premolars may drift distally
    • Maxillary 1st molar extrudes into space on mandibular arch
    • Anterior overbite is increased with resultant pathologic migration
  23. What are Functional occlusal forces
    normal forces produced during the act of chewing food
  24. Parafunctional occlusal forces result from _________ and what are two examples
    • tooth to tooth contact when not in the act of eating
    • Clenching
    • Bruxism
  25. Signs of occlusal trauma
    • –Tooth mobility
    • –Sensitivity to pressure
    • –Migration of teeth
    • –Enlarged, funnel-shaped PDL space
    • –Alveolar bone resorption
  26. Acute Trauma from Occlusion results from abrupt change in occlusal force such as ________ and can cause _________
    • Biting hard object
    • Restorations
    • Prosthetics
    • Tooth Pain, Sensitivity to Percussion, Increased tooth Mobility
  27. Referred Pain
    pain referred from periodontal injury may be felt in the area of the maxillary sinuses or spread elsewhere in the facial area
  28. Chronic Trauma from Occlusion is _______ than acute trauma occlusion has greater clinical significance and develops from gradual occlusal changes such as ______
    • –Tooth wear
    • –Drifting of teeth
    • –Extrusion of teeth
    • –Bruxism
    • –Clenching
    • –No tooth Pain
    • –No sensitivity to percussion
  29. Primary occlusal trauma is
    injury to a normal periodontium resulting from excessive occlusal forces
  30. Secondary occlusal trauma is __________ and may result in ________
    • injury to the periodontium from normal occlusal forces applied to a periodontium previously damaged by periodontitis
    • more rapid bone loss and pocket formation
Card Set
Perio PP16
Perio PP16