Exam 1

  1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
    anatomy is the study of  structures of the human body and physiology  is the study of the body functions.
  2. Microscopic anatomy involves the study of what type of structures?
    It involves the study of tissue known as histology and the study of cells; cytology.
  3. What is gross anatomy?
    Gross anatomy is the study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye.
  4. Studies of gross anatomy can be approached in several different ways what are they?
    Through regional anatomy, surface anatomy, and surface anatomy
  5. What is regional anatomy?
    The study of structures in a single body region.
  6. What is systemic anatomy?
    Is the study of all organs with related functions
  7. What is surface anatomy?
    The study of shapes and markings on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs.
  8. What are other branches of anatomy?
    Pathological anatomy, developmental anatomy, and radiographic anatomy.
  9. What is pathological anatomy?
    The study of structural changes caused by disease
  10. What medical specialist is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies?
  11. What is developmental anatomy?
    The study of structural changes occuring in the body throughout the lifetime.
  12. What is embryology?
    The study of  developmental changes of the body before birth.
  13. What two branches of anatomy  explore how body structures form, grow, and mature?
    Developmental anatomy and embryology
  14. What is radiographic anatomy?
    The study of internal structures visualized by x-ray studies and other imaging techniques
  15. What is functional morphology?
    It explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design.
  16. Some specialized branches of anatomy are used primarily for medical diagnosis and scientific research; which one are they?
    Pathological anatomy, radiographic anatomy, and functional morphology
  17. The human body as many levels of structural complexity what are they?
    chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organism level, organ system, and organismal level.
  18. In what level do atoms combine to form molecules (small and large)?
    chemical level
  19. What is the building blocks of matter?
  20. What are the four classes of macromolecules?
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
  21. Macromolecules are the building blocks of the structures at what level?
    cellular level
  22. What are the smallest living things in the body?
  23. How many cells make up the human body?
    100 tillion, 210 are distinct cell type
  24. What are considered the building block of life?
  25. At the cellular level; the cells and their  functional subunits are called?
    cellular organelles
  26. What is a tissue?
    A tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a common function.
  27. What are the four tissue types that make up all of the organs of the human body?
    epithelial tussue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
  28. What happens at the tissue level?
    tissues consist of similar type of cells
  29. What happens at the cellular level?
    cells are made up of molecules
  30. What happens at the chemical level?
    atoms combine to form molecules
  31. What is an organ?
    A discrete structure made up of more than one tissue.
  32. What happens at the organ level?
    organs are made up of different type of tissues
  33. Most organs contain how many types of tissues?
    all four tissues, epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective tissue.
  34. What is an organ system?
    organs  working together for a common purpose
  35. What happens at the  organ system level?
    organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
  36. Organs are "_____ _____" that are responsible for an activity.
    functional center
  37. Name the control center of the CNS, responsible for behavior.
  38. What organ pumps blood?
  39. What is an organismal level?
    The result of all simple levels working in unison
  40. Extreme complex physiological processes occur at what level?
    organ level
  41. What happens at the organismal level?
    The human organism is made up of many organ systems
  42. According to the metric system,what is the basic unit of  length?
    meter (m)
  43. According to the metric system,what is the basic unit of weight?
    grams (g)
  44. According to the metric system,what is the basic unit of volume?
    Liter (L)
  45. What position is the human body erect with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward (toward observer), and arms hanging at the side with palms facing foward?
    Anatomical position
  46. What is directional terminology?
    refers to the body in anatomical position
  47. What is regional terms?
    Names of specific body areas
  48. Towards the head end or upper part of the structure or the body, above.

    The head is _____ to the abdomen.
  49. Away from the head end, or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.

    The navel is _____ to the chin
  50. Towards or at the front of the body; in front of.

    The breastbone is ____ to the spine.
  51. Toward or at the back of the body; behind.

    The heart is _____ to the breastbone.
  52. Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.

    The heart is _____ to the arms.
  53. Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

    The arms are _____ to the chest
  54. Between a more medial and a more lateral structure

    The collarbone is _____ between the breastbone and shoulder
  55. Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

    The elbow is _____ to the wrist.
  56. Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

    The knee is _____ to the thigh
  57. Toward or at the body surface

    The skin is _____ to the skeletal muscles
  58. Away from the body surface; more internal

    The lungs are _____ to the skin.
  59. Name of body area that is relating to the head, neck, and trunk.
    Axial region
  60. Name of the body area that is relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis.
    appendicular region
  61. Divides abdomen into four quadrants.
    abdominal quadrants
  62. What are 9 adbominopelvic regions?
    umbilical region, epigastric region, hypogastric (pubic) region, right and left iliac or inguibal regions, right and left lumbar regions, and right and left hypochondriac regions.
  63. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    centermost region
    Umbilical regino
  64. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    Superior to umbilical region
    Epigastric Region
  65. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    Inferior to umbilical region
    hypogastric (pubic) region
  66. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    lateral to hypogastric region
    Right and left iliac or inguinal regions
  67. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    lateral to umbilical region
    right and left lumbar regions
  68. Related to the 9 abdominopelvic regions:
    flank epigastric region laterally
    right and left hypochondriac regions
  69. The axial portion of the body has two large cavities that provide protection to the organs within them, what are they?
    the dorsal (posterior) body cavity and the ventral (anterior) body cavity
  70. What cavity protects the nervous system and can be subdivided into the cranial cavity and the ventral (spinal) cavity which are continuous with each other.
    the dorsal body cavity
  71. Name the cavity:
    The brain is enclosed within the skull
    cranial cavity
  72. Name the cavity:
    runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
    vertebral cavity
  73. The ventral cavity is subdivided into the what cavities?
    The thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity.
  74. Name the cavity:
    houses the heart and lungs. Separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm.
    Thoracic cavity
  75. Name the cavity:
    A superior abdominal cavity and an inferior pelvic cavity
    abdominopelvic cavity
  76. Define: visceral organs (viscera)
    an internal organ of an animal
  77. The thoracic cavity is subdivided into?
    the pleural cavities and the mediastinum
  78. What is contained within the 2 pleural cavities?
    Each contains a lungs, which lie on wither side of the heart
  79. What is contained within the mediastinum?
    all of the thoracic organs except the lungs
  80. What organs are located in the mediastinum?
    heart (pericaridal cavity) aorta, thymus gland, chest portion of the trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes and important nerves.
  81. The walls of the ventral cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with a thin, double-layered membrane called:
    the serosa (serous membrane)
  82. What is  parietal serosa?
    the part of the membrane lining the cavity walls
  83. Name the part of the membrane covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity.
    viceral serosa
  84. These membrane produce  a thin lubricating fluid that allows the viceral organs to slide over one another or to rub against the cavity wall without friction. They also compartmentalize the various organs so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to others.  What membranes are they?
    serosa (serous membrane), parietal serosa, and viceral serosa
  85. The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of  the organs it contains are covered with a thin, double-layered membrane called:
    serosa (serous membrane)
  86. Name the serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs.
  87. What is the pleura?
    the serosa lining the lungs
  88. What serosa lines the  heart?
  89. Oral cavity
    the mouth
  90. Nasal cavity:
    located within and posterior to the nose
  91. Orbital cavity (orbits)
    houses the eyes and presents them in an anterior position
  92. Middle ear cavity
    contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
  93. Synovial cavity
    joint cavities
  94. Body Section/ Planes:
    lies vertically and divides body into anterior and posterior parts
    Coronal (frontal) plane
  95. Body Section/ Planes:
    Runs horizontally- divides body into superior and inferior parts
    Transverse plane (cross section)
  96. Body Section/ Planes:
    Rungs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts
    Sagittal plane
  97. Body Section/ Planes:
    Divides the body into equal parts
    Median (midsagittal) Plane
  98. Body Section/ Planes:
    all other sagittal planes
    parasagittal Plane
  99. Body Section/ Planes:
    Cuts made diagonally
    Oblique section
  100. What is microscopy?
    examining small structures through a microscope
  101. Illiminates tissu with a bean of light (lower magnification) 2D
    Light microscopy (LM)
  102. Uses beams of electrons (high magnification) 2D
    Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM)
  103. Heavy metal salt stain- deflects electrons in the beam to different extents; 3D
    Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM)
  104. The "father of Microscopy", coined the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life.
    Robert Hooke
  105. Mattias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann  (1830s) stated that:
    all living thins are composed of one or more cells.
  106. The hierarchy of biological organization:
    Ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, molecule,atom
  107. Cells differ in what aspect?
    Their ability to move, internal organization (prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic) and their metabolic activities.
  108. All cells share certain structural features and carry out many _____ _____ in basically the same way.
    complicated processes
  109. Are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids alive?
  110. Describe the cell theory:
    all organisms are composed of cells and cell products. All cells come from previously existing cells.
  111. Are all cells within an organism the same?
  112. Each cell performs all the functions necessary to _____ _____.
    sustain life
  113. A single- celled human _____ formed by fertilization is smaller than a period found in your text book.
  114. The zygote develops into a full-blown organism with ____ _____ cells organized into complex tissues and organs.
    100 trillion
  115. All  the cells in our bodies originate from one initial cell called...
    a zygote
  116. A gastrula will form ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Which one forms the central nervous system, retina and lens, cranial and sensory, ganglia and nerves, pigment cells, head connective tissue, epidermis, hair, and mammary glands.
  117. A gastrula will form ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Which one forms the skull, head, skeletal muscle, skeleton, dermis of skin, connective tissue, urogenital system, heart, blood, lymph cells, and spleen?
  118. A gastrula will form ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Which one forms the stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, urinary bladder, epithelial parts the trachea, lungs, pharynx, thyroid, and intestine?
  119. All living thins fall into two  categories, what are they?
    prokaryotic  and eukaryotic
  120. Describe a prokaryotic cell.
    only domains: Bacteria and Archea and does not have a nucleus
  121. Describe a Eukaryotic cell.
    Consist of plant and animal kingdoms, including the fungi- with multicellular molds and unicellular yeast. Has a nucleus
  122. What type of cells do humans have?
  123. This cell consist of a single enclosed compartment that is surrounded by a plasma membrane, lacks a defined nucleus and has a relatively simple organization. DNA is located in the nucleoid region.
    Prokaryotic cell
  124. It is the most numerous prokaryotes, do not have membrane-bound compartments but have many proteins that are precisely localized in their aqueous interior or cytosol, indicating the presence of some internal organization.
  125. This cell contains a defined membrane-bound nucleus that is absent ni prokaryotes. The nucleus segregates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell. Has Compartment  and its organisms can be either unicellular or multicellular.
    Eukaryotic cells
  126. Within our bodies there are many different cell types, however, they virtually share the same basic parts and can be described in terms of a _____ cell.
  127. There are three main parts of a cell: what are they?
    the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  128. Defines the extent of the cell (separates the living cell from its nonliving  surroundings).The thin/ flexible layer that separates the intracellular (inside) and extracellular (outside) compartments.
    plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
  129. Which molecule forms a two-layered membrane?
    Phospholipids (the phospholipid bilayer)
  130. Phospholipids are composed of What?
    two fatty acid chains (tail) and a phosphate group (head)
  131. The 2 fatty acid chains in a phospholipid are: polar or non-polar?
  132. The phosphate group in a phospholipid are: polar or non-polar?
  133. Most membranes have specific ____ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
  134. What protein percent makes up the membrane mass?
  135. Membrane phospholipids and proteins can drift about in the plane of the membrane. This behavior leads to the description of a membrane as _____ _____.
    fluid mosaic
  136. Molecules that can move freely within the membrane are known as:
  137. A diversity of proteins exist within the membrane and are known as:
  138. What span the entire width of the membrane and contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
    integral membrane proteins;transmembrane
  139. These proteins do not span the entire membrane; are loosely associated with other proteins or lipid molecules.
    Peripheral membrane proteins
  140. What role do glycolipids, cholesterol and carbohydrates play in the membrane?
    They provide rigidity
  141. What are the functions of the membrane proteins?
    • 1. attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
    • 2. cell signaling
    • 3. enzymatic activity
    • 4. transport
    • 5. intercellular joining
    • 6. cell to cell recognition
  142. In selective permeability; membranes of the cell do what?
    Provides barrier against substances outside the cell and some plasma membranes act as receptors for cellular communication
  143. Membranes are selectively permeable, what are their functions:
    they allow some substances to cross more easily than others as well as block passages of some substances altogether.
  144. What is diffusion?
    diffusion is one result of the movement of molecules from a high to a low concentrate.
  145. What type of transport does diffusion require?
    Diffusion is a passive transport; no energy is needed.
  146. Another type of passive transport is _____ _____, the transport of some substances by specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors.
    facilitates diffusion
  147. The traffic of some substances can only occur through which type of proteins. For example glucose requires this type of protein to move into the cell.
    Transport proteins
  148. What is osmosis?
    Osmosis is the passice tranport of water across a selectively permeable membrane; from high to low.
  149. Why is osmosis important for animal cells?
    The survival of a cell depends on its ability to balance water uptake and loss.
  150. What is an isotonic solution and what type of balance does it create in the cell?
    It is the equal concentration of ions in solution and cell. It creates equilibrium
  151. What is a hypertonic solution and what type of balance does it create in the cell?
    Creates a higher concentration of ions in solution than in the cell.Making the cell shrink
  152. What is a hypotonic solution and what type of balance does it create in the cell?
    Creates a lower concentration of ions in solution than in cell, making the cell swell.
  153. What is osmoregulation?
    the control of water balance in animals
  154. What is endocytosis?
    mechanism by which particles enter cells
  155. What are three forms of endocytosis?
    • 1. phagocytosis- cell eating
    • 2. Pinocytosis- cell drinking
    • 3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis- exquisitely selective transport process
  156. What happens in phagocytosis?
    A cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole.
  157. What happens in pinocytosis?
    It is primarily used for the absorption of extracellular fluids(ECF), generates very small vesicles, and unspecific in the substance that it tranports.
  158. This endocytosis is triggered by the binding of external molecules to membrane proteins. Upon membrane proteins binding to certain molecules, the membrane invaginates and forms a coated pit which then pinch off to become coated vesicel, which endocytosis is this?
    Receptor- mediated  endocytosis
  159. Name the mechanism that moves sibstances (enclosed in a vesicle) out of the cell; then the vesicle migrates  to the plasma membrane; proteins from vesicles (v-SNAREs) bind with membrane proteins (t-SNAREs); lipid layers from both membranes fuse, and the vesicle releases its contents to the outside of the cell.
  160. The part of the cell that lies internal to the plasma membrane and external to the nucleus.

    The "cell forming material"
  161. There are 3 major elements that make up the cytoplasm, what are they?
    • 1. cytosol
    • 2. organelles
    • 3. inclusions
  162. The _____ is the jelly-like, fluid containing substance within the cell, consist of water, ions, and enzymes. Make up half of the volume of cytoplasm. This is the  fluid in which other cytoplasmic elements are suspended.
  163. The cytoplasm contains about nine types of organelles, what are they?
    mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, centrioles, golgi apparatus, rough and smooth ER, and peroxisomes
  164. These organelles are constructed of proteins and ribosomal RNA; it is also the site of protein synthesis. They are not membrane bound.
  165. Ribosomes are composed of two  subunits that  fit together to form a functional ribosome. What are they?
    60s and 40s
  166. This is a type of ribosome found in the cell; floats in cytosol; makes soluble proteins, functions in cytosol. It also makes proteins that are not membrane bound.
    free ribosomes
  167. This is a type of ribosome found in the cell; it is attached to the rough ER and makes membrane proteins or exported proteins; starts on free and finishes translation on attaches.
    Attached ribosomes
  168. Ribosomes build all the cells proteins through a process called?
    Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    DNA>RNA>mRNA> proteins
  169. How do antibiotics  affect ribosomes?
    antibiotics target the processes of ribosomes
  170. A "network within the cytoplasm" it is an extensive system of membrane- walled envelopes and tubes/ This is the?
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  171. Ribosomes stud the external surface:  envelope stack called cisternae make all the membrane proteins and membrane. This is the?
    Rough ER
  172. Consist of tubules in a branching network; no ribosomes are attached; therefore no protein synthesis; stores Calcium and makes enzymes for lipid metabolism. This is the?
    Smooth ER
  173. What does the rough ER do after it synthesizes a molecule?
    It packages the molecule into transport vesicles.
  174. What makes the smooth ER different from the rough ER?
    The smooth ER lacks the surface ribosomes of the rough ER and produces lipid, including steroids
  175. Where is the cisternae located?
    It is located within the endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and the golgi apparatus
  176. This organelles is known as the packing and shipping center, it consist of a stack of 3-10 disk-shaped, membrane bound envelopes (cisternae. Works in partnership with the ER; sorts products of the rough ER at ahte cis end and sends them to proper destinations from the trans end.
    golgi apparatus
  177. This organelle is the power plant of the cell, generates most of the cell's energy (ATP) via cellular respiration. It is enclosed by a  double membrane; the inner membrane folds in forming sheld-like cristae, and contains own DNA (maternally derived)
  178. This organeslle consist of spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzyme, it know as the "demolishing crew" it breaks down macromolecules. It is known for intercellular digestion
  179. Where are secretory lysosomes found?
    They are found in white blood cells, immune cells and melanocytes.
  180. Which organelle, digests ingested bacteria, viruses and toxins; degrade nonfunctional organelles; break down glycogen and release thyroid hormone. It also breaks down non-useful tissue (for example webbing between fingers and toes during fetal development) it also breaks down bone to release calcium.
  181. This organelle are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. Membranous sacs contain oxidase and catalases; It is known as the "toxic waste plant". It detoxify harmful or toxic substances; break down long chains of fatty acids; neutralize dangerous free radicals and break down poisons.
  182. What is a free radical?
    a highly reactive chemical with unpaired electrons
  183. An infrastructure of the cell consisting of a network of rods/fiber that runs throughout the cytosol. Provides mechanical  support to the cell and maintain its shape and provides machinery for various cellular movements
    cytoskeleton "cell skeleton"
  184. The cytoskeleton contains three types of protein rods (not covered by membranes), what are they?
    • 1. Microtubules
    • 2. Microfialments
    • 3. Intermediate filaments
  185. Cylindrical structures made of proteins called tubulin; radiates from centrosome (cell center); organelles attach to and move along microtubules, which constantly assemble and disassemble. thickest protein
  186. Filaments of contractile protein actin that interact with myosin to create cell division, perform endo- and exocytosis, and play a role on pseudopod extension and retraction/ Organelles also attach to and move along actin filaments, which constantly assemble and dissemble; thinnest protein
    microfilaments (actin filaments)
  187. Protein fibers; most stable and permanent; help cells resist pulling forces- provides tensile strength- and plays a role in linking cells together.
    intermediate filaments
  188. A spherical structure in the cytoplasm that is composed of centrosome matrix and centrioles;
  189. Where are microtubules  anchored, also known as the microtubule organizing center.
  190. A paired of cylindrical bodies forming a pinwheel array of nine triplets of microtubules (27 short microtubules) act in forming cilia and flagella and organize mitotic spindles during mitosis.
  191. A motile appendage that propels the cell in a whiplike motion, some extend from non-moving cells.
  192. A motile appendage  that moves in a coordinated back and forth motion, some extend from nonmoving cells; the human windpipe id lined with this appendge.
  193. Temporary structures that are not present in all cell types; may consist fo pigments, crystal of proteins, and food stores.
  194. _____ _____ are found in liver cell and fat cell's.
    _____ store sugar in the form on glycogen; long chains of glucose
    lipid droplets; glycosomes
  195. Known as the central core or kernel, is the control center of  the cell. Contains DNA and directs the cell's activities.
  196. Two parallel membranes, seperated by fluid filled space, is known as?
    nuclear envelope
  197. Located in the center of the nucleus, contains parts of several chromosomes; is also the site of ribosome subunit manufacture
    Nucleolus " little nucleus"
  198. The nucleus contains 3 parts, what are they?
    • 1. nuclear envelope
    • 2. nucleolus
    • 3. chromatin
  199. DNA in a cell is packaed into an elaborate, multilevel system of coiling and folding, this is known as the;
  200. What is hetarochromatin?
    tightly packed  chromatin
  201. What is Euchromatin?
    loosely packed chromatin
  202. DNA is a long helix that resembles a spiral staircase. This double helix is in turn composed of four subunits called?
  203. The double helix in the DNA is composed of  nucleotides, each of which contains a distinct base, these bind together to form the stairs of the staircase and hold the DNA helix together. what are they?
    • Thymine(T)
    • Adenine (A)
    • Cytosine (C)
    • Guanine (G)
  204. In DNA Bonding Purines are:
    A & G
  205. In DNA bonding Pyrimidines are:
    C & T
  206. In DNA bonding; 3 hydrogen bonds exist between which bases
    Cytosine and Guanine
  207. In DNA bonding; 2 hydrogen bonds exist between which bases
    Adenine and Thymine
  208. Chromatin are composed of what?
    DNA and histone proteins
  209. What is a Condensed Chromatin?
    a condensed chromatin contains tightly coiled strands of DNA
  210. What contains uncoiled strands of DNA when DNA's genetic code is copied onto mRNA(transcription)?
    Extended Chromatin
  211. The highest  level of organization of chromatin; contains a long molecule of DNA.
  212. How many chromosomes are there in a typical human cell?
    46 chromosomes; 23 pairs
  213. A pictorial representation of chromosomes within an individual in known as;
  214. What is a homologous chromosome?
    It is two different chromosomes one from mom, one from dad
  215. How does DNA control the cell?
    DNA controls the cell by transferring its coded information into RNA
  216. What is the information in the RNA used for?
    Th information in the RNA is used to make proteins
  217. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
    DNA (transcription; occurs in the nucleus) ↦RNA (post-transcription modification; occurs in the nucleus) ↦ mRNA (translation; occurs in the cytoplasm)  ↦ proteins
  218. What are the general functions of the nucleus?

    Involved in manufacturing
    DNA synthesis; RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomal subunits
  219. What are the functions of ribosomes? 

    Involved in manufacturing
    Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
  220. What are the general functions of the Rough ER?

    Involved in manufacturing
    Synthesis of membrane proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; and formation of transport  vesicles
  221. What are the functions of the Smooth ER?

    Involved in manufacturing
    lipid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; and calcium ion storage
  222. What are the functions of the Golgi apparatus?

    Involved in manufacturing
    Modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; as well as formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
  223. What is the function of the lysosomes?
    • Involved in breakdown.
    • Digestion of nutrients, bacteria, and damaged organelles; and destruction of certain cells during embryonic development.
  224. What is the function of the peroxisomes?
    • Involved in breakdown
    • Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O by-product
  225. What is the function of the vacuoles?
    • Involved in breakdown
    • digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; and water balance
  226. What is the function of the mitochondria?
    • Involved in energy processing?
    • conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
  227. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
    • Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    • Maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission of signals from exterior of cell to interior.
  228. What is the function of the extracellular matrix?

    Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    Binding of cells in tissues; surface protection; regulation of cellular activities
  229. What is the function of the cell junctions?

    Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    Communicatino between cells; binding of cells in tissues
  230. What does the cell theory state?
    Cells are the basic unit of life, all organisms are made up of one or more cells, all cells come from pre-existing cells
  231. How do cells come from pre-existing cells?
    through cell reproduction via cell division
  232. What is reproduction?
    It is the birth of new organism.
  233. When does reproduction occur?
    It occurs moe often at the cellular level.
  234. Before development and differentiation of cell; what must you have?
    you must have cell division
  235. What does cell dividion play a role in?
    -The replacement of lost or damaged cells and the cell reproduction and growth.
  236. Before a parent cell divides, it duplicates all of it genetic material. Afer cell division the two resulting _____ _____ are genetically identical.
    daughter cells
  237. The complete set of an organisms genes is know as as;
  238. Where is the genome  located?
    It is located mainly on chromosomes in the cells nucleus
  239. What are ribosomes made of?
    Protein and Ribosomal RNA
  240. What are chromosomes made of?
    They are made of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein molecules
  241. Before a cell divides, it duplicates all of its chromosomes, resulting in two copies called?
    Sister Chromatids
  242. When the cell divides what occurs to sister chromatids?
    they seperate from each other
  243. Eukaryotic cells that divide undergo an orderly sequence of events called  the;
    cell cycle
  244. What are the two distinct phases the cell cycle consist of:
    interphase (90%) and the mitotic phase (10%)
  245. What what occurs in  the G1 Phase ?
    cell growth
  246. What is mitosis?
    mitosis is the division of the chromosomes
  247. Mitosis is preceded by what Phase?
  248. what  does  interphase consist of?
    • G1 (growth)
    • S (growth and DNA synthesis)
    • G2 (Growth and final preparation for division)
  249. Mitosis consist of four distinct phases, they are?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  250. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Asters (microtubule arrays) are seen; chromatin condenses into chromosomes attached to one another by their centromere. Nucleoli disappears, centriole pairs separate and mitotic spindles is formed. The nuclear envelope disappears and the microtubules attach to kinetochores and begin moving sister chromatids to center of cell.
  251. What is an asters?
  252. What is kinetochores?
    sister chromatids + proteins = kinetochores
  253. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Sister chromatids cluster at the middle of the cell with their centromeres aligned at the exact center. This arrangement of chromosomes along a plane midway between the poles is called the metaphase plate.
  254. The arrangement of chromosomes along a plane midway between the poles is called:
    metaphase plate
  255. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Centromeres of the sister chromatids split and each becomes a chromosome again, motor proteins in kinetochores (sister chromatids + proteins) pull chromosomes toward poles.
  256. What is telophase compared to prophase?
    Telophase is the reversal of prophase, it cleans up the aftereffects of mitosis
  257. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin.
  258. When is mitosis complete?
    at telophase, but cell division has yet one more step to complete
  259. When chromosomes decondensed what do they form?
    they form chromatids
  260. How is the nuclear envelope formed during telophase?
    By using fragments of the parent cell's  nuclear membrane
  261. What is cytokinesis?
    It is te division of the cytoplasm
  262. When does cytokinesis typically occur?
    during telophase
  263. Are mitosis and cytokinesis two different phases in the cell cycle?
    yes mitosis and cytokinesis  are two different phases in the cell cycle
  264. When is the cleavage furrow formed?
    during cytokinesis
  265. what created the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis?
    a contracting ring of microfilaments?
  266. Normal plant and animal cells have a ___ ____ ____ ____.... a series of checkpoints
    cell cycle control system
  267. What happens when the cell cycle control system malfunction?
    cell may reproduce at the wrong time or place, a bening tumor may form
  268. What are the cell cycles check points?
    G1, S, G2 and mitosis
  269. What is cancer?
    Uncontrolled cell division
  270. Meaning of malignant?
  271. Meaning of benign?
    not harmful
  272. Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display the following characteristics;
    • 1. uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits)
    • 2. invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues)
    • 3. and sometimes metastasis ( the spread to other lcoations in the body via lymph or blood)
  273. What causes cancer?
    Cancer is caused by a breakdown in control of cell cycle.The cancerous cells ignores the checkpoint.
  274. During cancer what happens to cell division?
    cancer cells divide excessively
  275. Where do cancer cells spread from?
    cancer cells spread from a malignant tumor
  276. Meaning of metastasis?
    the spreading of cancerous cells
  277. Types of cancer treatments:
    Radiation therapy will disrupt cell division and chemotherapy involves drugs that disrupt cell division.
  278. Cancer prevention includes changes in lifestyle like:.
    Not smoking, avoiding exposure to the sun, eating a high-fiber, low-fat diet, visiting the doctor regularly and performing self-examination
  279. What are specialized functions of cells related to the shape of cells and the arrangement of organelles
    cellular diversity
  280. Cells that connect body parts or cover organs are:
    fibroblast, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells.
  281. What is a  fibroblast?
    makes an secretes protein component of fibers
  282. What is concaved shaped, provides surface area for uptake of respiratory gasses?
    erythrocytes (RBC)
  283. What is hexagonal shape and allows maximum number of epithelial cells to pack together?
    epithelial cells
  284. Which are the cells that move organs and body parts?
    skeletal and smooth muscle cells
  285. Describe skeletal and smooth muscle cells:
    they are elongated and filled with actin and myosin; contract forcefully
  286. Name cells that store nutrients:
    fat cells; adipocyte
  287. How are fat cells (adipocytes) composed?
    Their shape is produced by large fat droplet in its cytoplasm
  288. Name cells that fight diseases:
  289. What is a macrophage?
    phagocytes that move through the tissue to reach infection sites
  290. Name cells that gather information:
  291. Describe a neuron.
    has long processes for receiving and transmitting messages
  292. Name cells of reproduction:
    Oocyte(female) and Sperm (male)
  293. Describe an oocyte.
    the largest cell in the body, contains many copies of organelles for distribution to daughter cells
  294. Dercribe a sperm:
    possesses long tail for swimming to the egg for fertalization
  295. Developmental aspects of cells:
    • Youth begin as what?
    • a fertilized egg
  296. During this developmental aspect of cells: cells in embryo are exposed to chemical signals that channel cells into specific pathways of development. A cells specialization leads to structural variation of cell types
  297. Developmental aspects of cells:
    • Aging is a complex process caused by a variety of factors such as:
    • free radical theory, mitochondrial theory, and generic theory
  298. What is the free radical theory?
    • 1) Damage from by products of cellular metabolism
    • 2) Radicals build up and damage essential molecules of cells
  299. What does the mitochondrial theory consist of?
    the mitochondrial theory beliefs that a decrease in production of energy by mitochondria weakens and ages our cells
  300. Generit theory proposes what?
    that aging is programmed by genes.
  301. How do telomeres affect the developmental aspect of cells?
    Telomeres are the end caps on a chromosome that limit the maximum number of times a cell can divide.
  302. What do telomerase do?
    Telomerase prevents telomeres from degrading.
  303. What is a group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure?
  304. what are the four major categories of tissue and their functions?
    • epithelial tissue- covering
    • Connective tissue-support
    • Muscle tissue- movement
    • Nervous tissue- control
  305. To perform specific functions, the tissues are organized into ____ such as the stomach, heart, kidneys and lungs.
  306. What is the name of the  tissues that covers the external body surface (epidermis), lines its cavities and tubules, and generally "marks the inside from the outsides".
    Epithelial/ epithelium
  307. What is also developed from epithelial membranes and classed as epithelium?
  308. Where does epithelia occur?
    Epithelia occurs at the interfaces between two different enviorments.
  309. What is the function of the epithelium?
    protection, secretion, absorption, filtration, and sensory reception
  310. Cellularity, special contacts, polarity, supported by connective tissue, avascular but innervated
    • and high regenerative capacity are unique characteristics of what tissues:
    • epithelial tissues
  311. what is cellularity in a epithelial tissue?
    When a epithelial tissue is composed entirely of cells.
  312. What are special contacts in an epithelial tissue?
    special contact- form continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
  313. What is polarity in an epithelial tissue?
    consist of an apical (upper free) and basal (lower attached) surfaces
  314. An epithelial tissue is supported by connective tissue  that consist of :
    a reticular and basal laminae (basement membrane)
  315. An epithelial tissue is avascular but innervated, which means?
    it is without blood cell, gets blood from connective tissue and has nerve endings
  316. An epithelial tissue has high regenerative capacity, which means it:
    rapidly replaces lost cells by cell division.
  317. What are the unique characteristics of epithelial tissues?
    • cellularity, polarity, special contacts, supported by connective tissue,
    • avascular but innervated, high regenerative capacity
  318. Epithelia is classified  according to which two criterias:
    arrangement and shape
  319. What is a simple and a stratified epithelia?
    • simple epithelia; consist of one layer of cells attached to the basement
    • stratified consist of two or more layers of cells
  320. In an epithelia there are  three shapes a cell can take on, what are they?
    squamous, cuboidal, and columnar.
  321. Describe a squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cell.
    • squamous: cell wider than tall (plate-like)
    • cuboidal: cells are as wide as tall (cube-like)
    • Columnar: cells are taller than they are wide (column-like)
  322. Name the epithelia tissue:

    It is actually a simple columnar epithelium, but because it's cells vary in height and the nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane, it gives a false appearance of being stratified. Often ciliated
    pseudostratified epithelium?
  323. Describe a transitional epithelium
    Stratified squamous epithelium are formed of rounded or plump cells with the ability to slide over one another  to allow the organs to be stretched
  324. Where are transitional epithelium found?
    They are only found in urinary system organs
  325. Describe a single squamous epithelium.
    a single layer of flat cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
  326. What are the functions of a  simpel squamous epithelium?
    passage  of materials by passive diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in serosa membranes.
  327. What are the special types of  simple squamous epithelium?
    endothelium and mesothelium
  328. What is mesothelium?
    it is the middle covering, lines peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities, and covers visceral organs of the cavities.
  329. What is endothelium?
    It is the inner covering, can be found in the slick lining of hollow organs
  330. Where can you find simple squamous epithelium?
    renal corpuscle, alveoli of lungs, lining of the heart, blood and lymphatic vessels,and lining of ventral body cavity(serosa)
  331. Describe the simple cuboidal epithelia.
    its a single layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei
  332. What are the functions of simple cuboidal epithelia?
    secretion and absorption
  333. Where can simple cuboidal epithelia be found?
    Kidney tubules, secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface
  334. Name the following Epithelia.
    Single layer of column-shaped (rectangular) cells with oval nuclei; some bear cilia at their apical surface and may contain goblet(mucus secreting) cells
    Simple Columnar Epithelia
  335. What are the functions of a simple columnar epithelia.
    Absorption; secretion of mucus, ion transport, ciliated type propels mucus to reproductive cells by ciliary action
  336. Where can a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelia be found?
    It lines the digestic tract, gallbladder and ducts of some glands
  337. Where can a ciliated simple columnar epithelia be found
    lines the bronchi, fallopian tubes, and the uterus.
  338. Name the following Epithelia.
    All cells originate at basement membrane; only tall cells reach the apical surface; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia; nuclei lie at varying height within cells (gives impression of stratification)
    Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
  339. What are the functions of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    secretion of mucus; propulsion of mucus by cilia
  340. Where can a non-ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    in ducts of male reproductive tubes and ducts of large glands
  341. Where can a ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract
  342. Name the following epithelia:
    Has many layers of cells; superficial layers are squamous in shape while deeper layers of cells appear cuboidal or columnar; thickest epithelial tissue; adapter for protection
    Stratified Squamous epithelium
  343. What are the functions of a stratified squamous epithelium?
    protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasions
  344. Where are keratinized forms of stratified squamous epithelium located?
  345. Where are non-keratinized forms of stratified squamous epithelium located?
    lining of esophagus, mouth, and vagina
  346. Describe a stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    Generally two layers of cube-shaped cells
  347. What are the functions of stratified cuboidal epithelium?
  348. Where are stratified cuboidal epithelium located?
    It forms largest ducts of sweat glands and forms ducts of mammary glands and salivary glands
  349. Describe a stratified columnar epithelium.
    several layers of basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated
  350. What are the functions of  a stratified columnar epithelium.
    protection and secretion
  351. Where can a stratified columnar epithelium be found?
    It is the rarest  tissue type, found in male urethra and large ducts of some glands.
  352. Name the epithelium;

    The basal cell usually is cuboidal or columnar; the superficial cells are domes shaped or squamous; undergoes transition in shape.
    Transitional Epithelium
  353. What are the functions of a transitional epithelium?
    Stretches and permits distension of urinary bladder causing thinning (from 6 to 3 layers when filled with urine)
  354. Where can you find transitional epithelium?
    Lines ureters, urinary bladder and part of urethra
  355. Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product form what?
  356. The product of a gland are _____ _____ that usually contain proteins.
    aqueous fluid
  357. Epithelial cells forming glands are highly specialized  to remove material from _____ and to manufacture them into new materials which they secrete. (recall ER)
    the blood
  358. Glands are classified by:
    • 1. site of release; endocrine (internally releasing) vs exocrine (externally realesing)
    • 2. the relative number of cells forming the gland
  359. These glands lose their surface connection (duct) as they develop and are referred to as "ductless gland". They also secrete hormones directly into the blood or the lymphatic vessels that weave through the glands to specific target organs far from the site of release.
    endocrine glands
  360. These glands retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through there ducts to an epithelial surface. (internal and external). These glands are a diverse group of glands and are found in different areas.
    exocrine glands
  361. Unicellular glands are found where?
    they are scattered within the epithelial sheets
  362. Describe a multicellular gland.
    They are formed by invagination or evaginations and usually have ducts (tube-like connections to epithelial sheets) that carry products to exocrine glands to epithelial surface
  363. Name a type of unicellular exocrine gland:
    the goblet cell
  364. Name the following type of gland.

    It is scattered throughout epithelial lining of intestines and respiratory tubes, between columnar cells.
    unicellular exocrine glands (the goblet cell)
  365. Which gland produces mucin, a glycoprotein that dissolves in water to become slimy; covers, protects and lubricates many internal body surfaces?
    Goblet cell
  366. which glands  have two basic parts; secretory units and epithelium-walled ducts- thye are also classified by structure of duct- either simple (unbranched) or compound (branched). They are categorized by secretory unit structures; tubular (secretory cells that form tubes), alveolar-acinar-(secretory cells that form small flask-like sacs), and tubuloalveolar (secretory cells that form tubular and alveolar units)
    multicellular exocrine glands
  367. What three factors act to bind epithelial cells to one another:
    • 1. Adhesion proteins in the plasma membranes link together adjacent cells
    • 2. The wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent  cells (tongue and groove)
    • 3. special cell junctions
  368. Name the type of cell junctions:

    A belt-like junction that extends around a periphery (apical region), closes off extracellular space, and some proteins in plasma membrane of adjacent cells are fused. This prevents molecules from  passing between cells of epithelial tissue.
    tight junctions (zonula occludens)
  369. Name the type of cell junctions:

    An anchoring junction  just  below tight junctions. Transmembrane linker proteins attach to  actin microfilaments of the cytoskeleton and bind adjacent cells. Together with tight junctions,  these form the tight junctional complex around apical lateral borders of epithelial tissues.
    Adherens junctions (zonula ahderens)
  370. Name the type of cell junctions:
    The main junctions for binding cells together, two disc-like plaques connected across intercellular space. Plaque of adjoining cells are joined by proteins called cadherins, proteins interdigitate into extracellular space and intermediate filaments insert into plaques from the cytoplasmic side.
    Desosomes (anchoring junctions)
  371. Name the type of cell junctions:

    A Tunnel-like passageway between two adjacent cells that can occur anywhere, allows small molecules move directly between neighboring cells. The cells are connected by hollow cylinders of proteins (connexons)
    Gap junction (nexus)
  372. This is the border between the epithelia and the ndelying C.T. This thin, noncellular sheet consist of proteins secreted by the epithelial cells.
    Basal Lamina
  373. What are the functions of the basal lamina?
    It acts as a selective filter, determining which molecules from capillaries enter the epithelium. Also acts as scaffolding along which regenerating epithelial cells can migrate.
  374. The basal lamina and reticular layers of the underlying connective tissue deep to it form  what?
    the basement membrane
  375. Clinical application:
    In untreated  cases of diabetes mellitus, the basement membrane associated with endothelium of capillaries thicken over time, probably because that take up glucose which is present in very high concentration.
    Thickening is specially evident in capillaries of kidneys and the retina of the eyes, making them nonfunctional. This is why kidney failure and blindness are major symptoms of diabetes.
  376. What has finger-like extensions of plasma membrane, maximizes surface area across which small molecules enter or leave and is abundant in epithelia of small intestine and kidneys.
  377. What has a whip-like, highly motile extension of apical surface membranes.
  378. What is a set of microtubules that contains a core of nine pairs of microtubules encircling one middle pair; each pair of microtubules arranged in a doublet.
  379. Describe the movement of a cilia.
    in coordinated waves
  380. Describe a flagellum.
    extremely long cilia used to propel cells/ organisms
  381. What is an example of a flagellum?
    sperm cell
  382. Describe the movement of a flagellum.
    whiplike pattern
  383. What is a connective tissue?
    it is found in all parts of the body as a discrete structure or as part of various body organs.
  384. Functions of a connective tissue.
    protects, support (catilage and bone) and bind together (tendons and ligaments) other tissues of the body.
  385. Example of connective tissues are?
    • 1.osseous tissue
    • 2.areolar connective tissue
    • 3.adipose (fat) tissue
    • 4.hemtopoietic tissue
  386. Describe osseous tissue
    connective tissue of the bone
  387. Describe areolar connective tissue
    soft packaging material that cushions and protects body organs
  388. Describe adipose (fat) tissue
    provides insulation of the body tissues and as source of stored food
  389. Describe hematopoietic tissue
    replenishes the body's supply of red blood cells
  390. What are the four main types of connective tissue?
    • 1. connective tissue proper
    • 2. catilage
    • 3. bone tissue
    • 4. blood
  391. What are the characteristic of connective tissue?
    • 1. All C.T. originates from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme
    • 2. they have a rich supply of blood vessels
    • 3. C.T. are composed of many cell types
    • 4. In between the cells of C.T. are a vast amount of noncellular (non-living material), called extracellular matrix
  392. All types of C.T. orginate form the embryonic tissue called.
  393. What is the function of extracellular matrix in C.T.?
    the extracellular matrix distinguishes connective tissue from all other tissues. The matrix is produced by the cells and then extruded, and it accounts for the strength of C.T.
  394. What are the two structural components of the matrix?
    • 1. ground substance
    • 2. fibers
  395. Describe ground substance:
    the ground substance functions as a medium through which nutrients and other dissolved substances can diffuse between the blood capillaries and cells. It holds the interstitial fluid.
  396. Describe fibers:
    The fiber provide support. For example; collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers
  397. What are all fibers made from?
    A single cell called fibroblast
  398. The prototypic connective tissue is;
    areolar connective tissue
  399. Which tissue underlies almost all the epithelia of the body and surrounds almost all the small nerves and blood vessels?
    Areolar connective tissue
  400. What are the basic functions of areolar connective tissue?
    • 1. Support and binding of other tissues (happens in the matrix)
    • 2. Holding body fluid (happens in the matrix)
    • 3. Defending the body against infection (happens in the cell)
    • 4. Storing nutrients as fat (happens in the cell)
  401. Describe a collagen fiber.
    strongest and most abundant type, it allows connective tissue to  withstand tension  and the cross-linking of collagen fibers give collagen its strength
  402. What gives bundles of special type of collagen, clusters into networks (reticulum) that cover and support all structures bordering the C.T. When pulled these fibers glide freely past one another and "allow more give" thus capillaries are not choked by the surrounding these fiber when they expand.
    Reticular Fibers
  403. Describe an elastic fiber;
    long and thin; form wide networks within the ECM. They are made up of collagen but also contain elastin, which allows them to function like rubber bands (they recoil back)
  404. Name the part of the extracellular matrix that holds the tissue fluid (derived form the blood). Consist of large sugar (glycosaminoglycans) and sugar-protein molecules (proteoglycans) that soak up fluid like a sponge.   Functions as a medium through which nutrients, wastes and other dissolved substances can diffuse between the blood capillaries and cells.
    Ground substances
  405. What does ground substance holds?
  406. As a defense cell, how does areolar C.T. work?
    it is  the site of the body's war against infectious microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites
  407. As a defense cell what does areolar C.T. contain?
    It contains a variety of defense cells, all of which originate as blood cells and migrate to the connective tissue by leaving the capillaries
  408. Within the areolar C.T., which following cells work to defend the body:
    • 1. Macrophages
    • 2. Plasma cells
    • 3. Mast cells
    • 4. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils
  409. Which C.T. also stores (nutrients) energy reserved as fat. The larger, fat storing cells are called fat cells (adipose or adipocytes). The cytoplasm  of adipocytes is dominated by a single, giant lipid droplet that flattens the nucleus and cytoplasm at one end of the cell.
    areolar C.T.
  410. What are the subclasses of connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue and dense (fibrous) connective tissue
  411. Loose connective tissue consist of more cells & less matrix, also consist of which other C.T.
    • Areolar C.T.
    • Adipose C.T. 
    • Reticular C.T.
  412. Dense (fibrous) connective tissue consist of less cells & more matrix, also consist of which other C.T.
    • 1. regular C.T. (tendon)
    • 2. irregular C.T
    • 3. elastic C.T. (aorta)
  413. Which C.T. proper does Areolar C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  414. Which C.T. proper does Adipose C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  415. Which C.T. proper does Reticular C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  416. Which connective tissue does its mass consist of 90% fat cells. It is highly vascularized, removes lipids from  the bloodstream after meals and later releases them into the blood as needed. Occurs in the hypodermis and the mesentries.
    Adipose Connective tissue
  417. Which connective tissue resembles areolar tissue, but the only fibers present in the matrix are reticular fibers which hold many free cells. Can be found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes (all have many free blood cells outside the capillaries).
    Reticular connective tissue
  418. This C.T. resembles areolar tissue, but the collagen fiber are much thicker. Collagen fibers run in different planes, allowig this C.T. to resist tension from different directions.
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  419. This connective tissue contains colllagen fibers  that run in the same direction... parellel to the direction of pull. Crowded between the  fibers are rows of fibroblasts, which continously produce the collagen fibers and scant ground substances. Unlike areolar it is poorly vascularized, has no fat or defense cells.
    Dense regular connective tissue
  420. Can be found in few ligaments, bundles of elastic fibers outnumber the collagen fibers. For example the ligamentum flavum. Which connective tissue it this?
    Dense (regular) elastic connective tissue
  421. Describe cartilage.
    a firm connective tissue that resist compression (pressing) as well as tension.
  422. Describe the matrix.
    thin collagen, ground substance, lots of tissue fluid
  423. How much water does cartilage contain?
    cartilage consist of 80% water
  424. A firm, flexible tissue that contains no blood vessels or nerves and just one kind of cell called a chondrocyte (contained within a cavity called a lacuna).
  425. Immature chondrocytes are called _____, which secrete the matrix during cartilage growth.
  426. What are the three types of cartilages.
    • 1. hyaline catilage
    • 2. fibrocartilage
    • 3. elastic cartilage
  427. Which cartilage is this: consists of amorphous bu firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacuna.
    hyaline catilage
  428. What are the functions of hyaline cartilage?
    support and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties and resists compressive stress
  429. The matrix of this cartilage consist of a glassy apperance.
    hyaline cartilage
  430. Which cartilage is this: 
    Matrix is similar to but less  firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate.
  431. This cartilage resist tensile forces and has a more visible thicker collagen.
  432. Functions of fibrocatilage.
    has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
  433. Which cartilage is this:
     Is similar to hyaline cartilage but more elastic fiber in the matrix.
    Elastic cartilage
  434. Functions of elastic cartilage
    maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
  435. Which elastic snaps back to shape (recoil)?
    Elastic cartilage
  436. Location of elastic cartilage.
    supports the external ear; epiglottis
  437. Location of fibrocartilage.
    intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joints
  438. This C.T. has a hard, calcified matrix, contains many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae, and is very well vascularized.
    Bone (osseous) tissue
  439. What are osteoblasts?
    secrete collagen fibers and matrix... in an immature stage
  440. What is an Osteocyte?
    mature bone cells in lacunae
  441. Which C.T do these functions associate with; support and protects organs, provides levers and attachments site for muscles, stores calcium, fat, and minerals. Marrow inside bones is the site for blood cells formation  (hematopoiesis)
    Bone (osseous) tissue
  442. This C.T. is the fluid in the blood vessel,it is themost atypical C.T., does not bind things together or give mechanical support
    Blood tissue
  443. Why is blood classified as C.T.?
    Blood is a connective tissue because it develops from mesenchyne and consist of blood cells surrounded by nonliving matrix (plasma)
  444. Blood functions as a transport vehicle for the _____ _____, carrying nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and other substances throughout the body.
    Cardiovascular system
  445. Describe Blood.
    red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
  446. What is the function of blood?
    Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances
  447. These membranes are a combination of epithelial and connective tissues. They cover a broad area within the body and consist of an epithelial sheet plus the undelaying layer of the connective tissue proper. What are they?
    • 1. cutaneous
    • 2. mucous
    • 3. serous membranes
  448. The_____ _____ is the skin covering the outer surface of the body. the epithelium and the connective tissue proper.
    cutaneous membrane
  449. What is an epithelium?
    the thick epidermis
  450. What is the connective tissue proper?
    the dense dermis
  451. The _____ ______ lines the inside of every hollow internal organ that opens outside the body.
    mucous membrane
  452. What membrane lines the tubes of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive,a nd urinary system.
    Mucous membrane
  453. Lines the inside of every hollow internal organ that opens outside the body. Lines the tubes of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary system. All are wet and moist, but not all secrete mucus. All consist of an epithelial sheet directly above a layer of loose connective tissue called lamina propia.
    Mucous membrane (mucosa)
  454. Mucous membrane consist of an epithelial sheet directly above a layer of loose connective tissue called?
    lamina propia
  455. The _____ _____ are the slippery membranes that line the closed pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. All consist of a layer of simple squamous epithelium lying on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
    serous membrane (serosa)
  456. Brings about most kinds of body movement.
    muscle tissue
  457. Most _____ cells are called muscle fibers because they have an elongated shape and contract forcefully as they shorten.
  458. Muscle tissues contain _____ a combination of actin and myosin allows cells to contract
  459. There are three kinds of muscle tissue, what are they?
    • 1. skeletal
    • 2. cardiac
    • 3. smooth
  460. This muscle pulls on bones to cause body movement. Has long, large cylinders that contain many nuclei. Appear striated due to the organization of myofilaments
    Skeletal muscle
  461. This muscle occurs in the wall of the heart. Contracts to propel blood through the blood vessels, like skeletal muscles it also appears striated. However,  each cell has just one nucleus and cardiac cells branch and joint at special cellular junctions called intercalated discs.
    cardiac muscle
  462. Cardiac cells branch and join at special cellular junctions called;
    intercalated discs
  463. This muscle has no visibel striation in its cells. It  is spindle shaped and contains one centrally located nucleus. It is found in hollow walls of vicera (digestive and urinary organs, uterus and blood vessels) acts to squeeze substances through these organs
    Smooth muscle
  464. Which muscle are walls of most hollow organs?
    smooth muscle
  465. The main component of the nervous organs.... the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which regulate and control body functions. Contains two types of cells... what are they?
    Neurons and supporting cells
  466. These are highly specialized cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses. They have extensions that allow them to transmit impulses over great distances within the body.
  467. These are non-conducting cells that nourish, insulate and protect the delicate neurons.
    Supporting cells
Card Set
Exam 1
Exam 1