Lectures 1-5

  1. Nature
    • part of genetic endowment
    • innate, genetic, maturation
    • Nativist
  2. Nurture
    • acquired through experience
    • environmental, cultural
    • Empiricist
  3. Example of why IRB is needed
    Del & Ray deprivation study - 2 twin girls from uneducated poor parents who were reared in controlled deprivation conditions
  4. reliability
    • refers to the consistency of an observation
    • is the finding replicable?
  5. inter-rater/observer reliability
    would a different observer see the same thing?
  6. Test-retest reliability
    would same people act the same way if they were tested again?
  7. validity
    whether you are measuring what you intended to measure
  8. internal validity
    has to do with the design of the experiment
  9. construct validity
    how you interpreted the results
  10. external (ecological) validity
    whether or not your results can be generalized
  11. experimenter bias
    • researcher inadvertently inserts opinion into the study
    • do blind experiments to prevent this
  12. subject bias
    participants slant results to please the experimenter or for other reasons
  13. gender bias
    • when the study is designed so that one gender is favored over another
    • ex. masuring girls with a scale made for boys
  14. cultural bias
    • ex. scheduling test on yom kippur - students might not do well bc theyre fasting
    • ex. IQ tests are geared towards upper/middle class students but unfair to lower class students bc they havent been exposed to the same words/experiences
  15. Sample
    the people you choose to study
  16. Population
    the group of people you want to generalize about
  17. W.E.I.R.D. =?
    • western
    • educated
    • industrialized
    • rich
    • democratic
  18. Age error
    • using age as an independent variable = WRONG
    • bc you cannot assign someone to an age
    • avoid this by: using age as DV, doing age-matched designs
  19. Why are larger samples better
    • because the more participants you have, the more statistical power there is
    • important to have larger samples bc children are very variable
  20. 3 types of research designs
    • case study - studies one child, unique opportunity but hard to generalize to other kids
    • cross-sectional - 1 observation per participant, can be same age or different ages or diff ability groups, quick and easy but cant see development
    • longitudinal - more than 2 observations per participants over a certain length of time, can see developmental changes but it is very expensive
  21. Sampling Interval Error
    concluding that development is stage-like or continuous based on too-large sampling intervals
  22. Zygotic Period
    • 0-2 weekss
    • zygote implants itself into the wall of the uterus
    • cell division occurs rapidly
  23. Embryonic Period
    • 2-8 weeks
    • the support structures grow from cluster of cells and all the important anatomy is laid down
  24. amnion
    sac in which the baby lives
  25. chorion
    layer outside the amniotic sac
  26. cell migration
    newly formed cells move to other locations
  27. cell differentiation
    all cells are the same at first, then they begin to specialize
  28. Fetal Period
    • 9-40 weeks/birth
    • baby gets bigger and fatter
    • the lungs also develop
  29. At 8 weeks in fetal development
    you start to see the amnion clearly
  30. At 9 weeks in fetal development
    the fetus can start to move its body parts
  31. At 16 weeks in fetal development
    the mother can feel the fetus moving
  32. During which period is fetus most susceptible to teratogens
    embryonic period
  33. If something bad happens in zygotic period
    spontaneous abortion
  34. If something bad happens in embryonic period
    affects later development negatively
  35. If something bad happens in fetal period
    baby is born prematurely
  36. Teratogens
    substances or events that can produce birth defects
  37. Examples of teratogens
    alcohol, nicotine, low nutrition, exposure to radiation
  38. What was thalidomide used for?
    to prevent morning sickness
  39. Effects of taking thalidomide at 38-48 weeks
    defects in ears
  40. Effects of taking thalidomide in 38-46 week period
    defects in arms
  41. Effects of taking thalidomide in 30-46 week period
    defects in legs
  42. Effects of thalidomide after 50 weeks
    no effect
  43. 4 stages of labor
    • cervix dilates and gets thinner so baby can move along (can last for 24 hours)
    • pushing can last from 30min-2 hour
    • delivery of baby
    • delivery of placenta
  44. Normal gestation period
    38-40 weeks
  45. Normal weight for babies
    5.5 pounds minimum
  46. What does it mean to be premature
    born 35 weeks or before
  47. SGA
    small for gestational age, born tiny
  48. Which is worse - being born early or SGA?
    SGA because there is a higher chance of developmental systems not being fully developed
  49. Cerebral Palsy - effects and what is it associated with?
    • inability to control movements or muscles
    • CP babies have- brain lesions, abnormal muscle tone, mental retardation
    • associated with - poor women bc they arent getting enough nutrition and with older women
  50. Genotype
    genetic material that an organism inherits
  51. Phenotype
    observable characteristics of the genotype (behavior, looks)
  52. Environment
    every aspect of the organism and its surroundings
  53. Trisomy 21
    • aka down syndrome
    • 3 chromosome #21 instead of just 2
    • hypotonic/really loose muscles
    • deficits in cognitive abilities, partial mental retardation
  54. PKU
    • a recessive gene on chromosome 12 that prevents breakdown of phenylalanine in food
    • mother with PKU can break it down, passes it on to child while breastfeeding
  55. If you have 2 recessive genes for PKU but dont eat it
    you will be fine
  56. If you have 2 recessive genes for PKU and ingest phenylalanine
    will cause mental retardation within a year
  57. Phenotype of PKU
    kid will have lighter hair and eyes than other siblings who dont have it
  58. Genes
    sections of chromosomes that code for proteins
  59. Autosomes
    all chromosomes that arent sex chromosomes
  60. Sex-Linked Traits
    • more common in boys because they only have one copy of an X chromosome so they cannot override a recessive gene whereas girls can
    • ex. color blindness, fragile x syndrome, hemophelia
  61. Turner's syndrome
    • female only has one x chromosome
    • leads to delayed puberty and fertility, as well as learning disabilities
  62. Klinefelter's syndrome
    • male is born with an extra X chromosome (XXY)
    • low testosterone, reduced body mass/facial hair, produce little to no sperm
  63. Monozygotic vs Dizygotic twins
    • mono - identical, one egg that splits up into two, both have the same genes
    • Di - fraternal, two separate eggs are fertilized by two sperm
  64. Development of touch by what fetal age
    50 days
  65. Development of sense of balance by what fetal age
    100 days
  66. Development of hearing by what fetal age
    150 days
  67. Development of seeing by what fetal age
    180 days
Card Set
Lectures 1-5
lectures 1-8