Perio PP12

  1. The cell membrane of the bacteria is used to
    identify and classify bacteria
  2. The GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA has a ______ thick cell membrane and the membrane ________ purple gram stain
    • single
    • retains
  3. The GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA  has _______ cell membranes and _______ purple grain stain
    • double
    • do not retain
  4. GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA is ASSOCIATED WITH ________ BACTERIA
    NONPATHOGENIC
  5. GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA has a ________ MEMBRANE containing ____________ which are _________ and are associated with _________
    • DOUBLE CELL
    • LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES
    • ENDOTOXINS
    • PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
  6. AEROBIC BACTERIA __________to live
    REQUIRE OXYGEN
  7. ANAEROBIC BACTERIA _________ in the presence of oxygen
    CANNOT LIVE
  8. FACULTATIVE ANAEROBIC BACTERIA can __________ oxygen
    LIVE WITH OR WITHOUT
  9. CAPNOPHILES require
    CARBON DIOXIDE
  10. PLANKTONIC CELLS are what kind of bacteria
    FREE-FLOATING SINGLE CELL BACTERIA
  11. ATTACHED BACTERIA are what kind of bacteria
    COMMUNITIES OF BACTERIA THAT ATTACH TO EACH OTHER AND TO A SURFACE ARE CALLED BIOFILMS
  12. Flagella is _________ while fimbriae (_______) are ________
    • long wavy projection for motility
    • pili
    • small projections attached to the surface of bacteria which mediate adhesion to hydroxyapatite and to different species of bacteria
  13. Fermantative or saccharolytic bacteria obtains nutrients from ______ and are mainly _______ bacteria
    • the breakdown of complex compounds such as sugars
    • gram +
  14. Nonfermantative or asaccharolytic bacteria obtain nutrients from
    amino acids, simple peptides and proteins
  15. BIOFILM
    A LIVING FILM CONTAINING A WELL-ORGANIZED COMMUNITY OF BACTERIA, THAT GROWS ON A SURFACE
  16. What are the three stages of the biofilm life cycles
    • –ATTACHMENT
    • –GROWTH
    • –DETACHMENT
  17. With the BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH there are between ________ bacteria in a sulcus. ____% of the bacteria is and most are ________
    • 100 and 1000
    • 75% are gram + facultative rods and cocci
    • nonmotile
  18. With the BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GINGIVITIS there are between _________ bacteria in the sulcus. ____% of the bacteria is
    • 1000 and 100,000 bacteria
    • 50/50 gram negative and gram positive bacteria
    • 40% gram negative rods
  19. With the BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH PERIODONTITIS there are between ________ bacteria in the sulcus with high percentages of ________ and mostly _________ and differs _______
    • 100,000 and 1,000,000 bacteria
    • gram negative rods and motile bacteria
    • anaerobic
    • significantly from tooth to tooth
  20. What are the LEADING PERIODONTAL PATHOGENS
    • –**AGGREGATIBACTER ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS (Aa)Used to be actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans–CAMPYLOBACTER RECTUS (Cr)
    • –EIKENELLA CORRODENS (Ec)–**TANNERELLA   FORSYTHIA (Tf)–**PORPHYROMONAS   GINGIVALIS (Pg)–**PREVOTELLA   INTERMEDIA (Pi)–FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM (Fn)–**TREPONEMA DENTICOLA (Td)
  21. AGGREGATIBACTER ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS (Aa) is strongly associated with _________ and somewhat associated with ________ and is capable of __________
    • aggressive periodontitis (rapidly progressing periodontitis)
    • chronic periodontitis
    • evading normal host immune response
  22. –TANNERELLA FORSYTHIA (Tf) is significantly associated with _______ and found on or within the _______
    • chronic periodontitis
    • sulcular epithelium
  23. –PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS (Pg) is found in
    aggressive forms of periodontitis and patients exhibiting disease progression (active disease)
  24. –PREVOTELLA   INTERMEDIA (Pi) and–TREPONEMA DENTICOLA (Td) are found in
    increased numbers in necrotizing periodontal diseases (ANUG, ANUP)
  25. What are the 5 PHASES OF DENTAL PLAQUE BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT
    • –1. Formation of acquired pellicle
    • –2. Attachment of early bacterial colonizers
    • –3. Coaggregation of additional bacterial colonizers
    • –4. Formation of an extracellular slime layer and microcolony formation
    • –5. Mature biofilm characterized by bacterial microcolonies that form complex groups with a communication system and fluid channels
  26. Within _______ of cleaning a tooth, a film forms over the tooth surface called the _________ that is composed of _________. Within ________ bacteria begin to attach to the outer surface of the pellicle
    • minutes
    • ACQUIRED PELLICLE,
    • salivary glycoproteins and antibodies
    • a few hours
  27. In phase 1 of DENTAL PLAQUE BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT the acquired pellicle serve what two main functions
    • Protects enamel of tooth
    • Changes the surface charge of the tooth allowing bacteria to stick
  28. In phase 2 of DENTAL PLAQUE BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT the fimbriae enable some bacteria to do what
    attach to the tooth surface
  29. In phase 4 of DENTAL PLAQUE BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT the _________ or Extracellular slime layer is formed which helps _______ and provides _________ and the colony expands by ___________
    • glycocalyx
    • other bacteria attach to the tooth surface
    • protection for the bacteria,
    • and the colony expands by internal growth (cell division)
  30. In phase 5 of DENTAL PLAQUE BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT the mature biofilm forms consisting of
    mushroom-shaped colonies that are attached to the tooth at a narrow base
  31. Bacteria in mature biofilm are resistant to _______, ________ and ___________
    antibiotics, antimicrobials, and our host response
  32. The colonies are penetrated by fluid channels that conduct the flow of
    nutrients, waste products, enzymes, metabolites, and oxygen
  33. The bacteria in a biofilm communicate with each other by _______ that trigger the bacteria to ___________
    • sending out chemical signals
    • produce potentially harmful proteins and enzymes and to attach additional bacteria
  34. Biofilms evade antimicrobial challenges by multiple mechanisms. These can be grouped into what three broad categories
    • 1) reduction of the antimicrobial concentration in the bulk fluid surrounding the biofilm (depletion/dilution);
    • 2) failure of the antimicrobial agent to penetrate the biofilm (glycocalyx); and
    • 3) adoption of a resistant state (genetic changes)
  35. __________ IS THE CELL-TO-CELL ADHERENCE OF ONE BACTERIUM TO ANOTHER
    COAGGREGATION
  36. The first bacteria to colonize the tooth surface are __________ . The periodontal pathogens remain __________ until the ___________. The early colonizers send __________ when conditions are _________ to join the biofilm attached to the tooth
    • nonpathogenic
    • freely floating (planktonic) in the mouth
    • early colonizers attach
    • signals to the pathogens
    • favorable for the pathogenic species
  37. What two species of bacteria have the ability to attach to the tooth pellicle and to each other
    Streptococcal species (sanguis) and Actinomyces viscosus
  38. What are the species of Gram-negative bacteria that coaggregate
    • Fusobacterium nucleatum
    • Prevotella intermedia
  39. What are the later Gram-negative bacteria that colonize
    • Porphyromonas gingivalis
    • Capnocytophaga gingivalis
  40. _______ periodontal pathogens can’t cause disease!!
    Free-floating
  41. How many weeks does it take for a well differentiated subgingival biofilm to form
    12 weeks
  42. In Subgingival plaque limited access to oral cavity allows growth of _______ and _______ bacteria
    • anaerobic bacteria
    • motile
  43. Subgingival plaque formation is initiated and influenced by the presence of mature
    supragingival plaque
  44. Subgingival environment is more of what qualities
    • –*More anaerobic (less oxygen) bacteria
    • –*More Gram negative bacteria
    • –*More motile bacteria
    • *More asaccharolytic bacteria (no saliva)
  45. Plaque always begins _________ and progresses __________
    • supragingivally
    • subgingivally
  46. What are the SUBGINGIVAL BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT ZONES
    • Tooth attached plaque
    • Unattached plaque
    • Epithelial associated plaque
    • Bacteria invading connective tissue
    • Bacteria on bone
  47. In Tooth attached plaque the bacteria extend almost to the __________. Subgingival bacteria can invade the ________ and is predominately _________
    • epithelial attachment
    • dentinal tubules
    • early colonizers
  48. What are the characteristics of Epithelial-associated plaque
    • Adhere to the epithelium of the pocket wall
    • Are distinctly different from the tooth-associated bacteria
    • Can invade the gingival connective tissue and be found on the surface of the alveolar bone
    • Large numbers of spirochetes and flagellated bacteria(MOTILE)
    • Most harmful
  49. Current research shows that the _________ is the primary cause of the destruction seen in periodontitis
    body’s immune response to the plaque biofilm
  50. __________ not the bacteria, causes most of the damage
    Inflammation
  51. Some bacteria produce ________ that degrade antibiotics faster than the drug can penetrate into the biofilm
    enzymes
  52. Studies show that professional debridement may not remove what four species with instrumentation
    P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythus and Aa
  53. Calculus is not an etiology of ______ it is a major contributing factor that allows _______
    • periodontitis
    • bacteria to quickly form a mature biofilm
  54. Materia alba refers to ________ that lack the _________
    • soft accumulations of bacteria and tissue cells
    • organized structure of plaque
Author
haitianwifey
ID
328702
Card Set
Perio PP12
Description
Perio PP12
Updated