Exam 1

  1. Core Conflict I
    • are addicted individuals bad people who need to be punished? (impunitive model)
    • or sick people that need to be healed? (healing model)
  2. Core Conflict II
    • social view - addiction is about human connection, helps indiv. reconnect with the world,
    • individual view - psychopathology, trauma and self-hatred
  3. Weil's Theory
    human beings have an innate need for altered states of consciousness
  4. According to NIDA why do people use drugs?
    • to feel good
    • to feel better
    • to do better
    • curiosity
    • bc others are doing it
  5. 6 Motivations to Use Substances
    • self-stimulation - used to feel alive, pleasure, access creative/spiritual self
    • self-soothing - treat inner anguish and pain
    • somatic I - used to address brain changes, withdrawal symptoms and mood changes
    • somatic II - used to cope w medical illness and chronic pain
    • social identity - drug addiction as a lifestyle, addict identity
    • social justice - social oppression, racism, sexism
  6. Motivation to Use:

    "i felt the prick of the needle, but only for a second bc this great rush of warmth quickly followed, encompassing me from my toes right up to the top hair on my head.. when she was done, i felt i had entered heaven" (beauty queen by linda govach)
    self-stimulation: pleasure
  7. Motivation to Use:

    "William sryron (the author) used liquor.. as means.. of letting his mind conceive visions that the unaltered, sober brain ahs no access to"
    self-stimulation: creativity
  8. Motivation to Use:

    " after a lifetime of depression and long bouts of self-medicating with alcohol, cocaine, and whatever else was available, heroin was a godsend. in fact I can truly say that junk is one of the best things thats ever happened to me"
    self-soothing: self-medication
  9. Motivation to Use:

    "so i stopped smoking meth that christmas eve.. and I went through about 10days of absolute torture and hell before I started to even feel a little bit better, bc as bad as you feel doing meth, the pain of coming off it is much worse. And to most people, this pain is unbearable, and just not worth quitting"
    somatic domain I
  10. Motivation to Use:

    "Rush Limbaugh announced on his radio program Friday afternoon that he is addicted to pain medication.. the radio talk show host said he first became addicted to painkillers some years ago following spinal surgery"
    somatic domain II
  11. Motivation to Use:

    "Alcohol was the fuel, the catalyst for our artistic ambitions, as well as the social lubricant.. our days of wild drinking were very much tied into a time and place when we were finding ourselves, our circle of friends, our voices as creative people"
    Social identity domain
  12. Motivation to Use:

    "Moreover, the vast majority of the addicted poor living on the streets have life histories of severe, cumulative trauma, made worse by the inhuman conditions homeless people face"
    Social Justice Domain
  13. Motivation to Change:

    ".. I saw my 2 sleeping children in the rearview, teeny tiny, the girls were swallowed by the snowsuits.. If i went inside the house I could get what I needed in 10 min tops...... God had looked after the twins and by proxy me, but I realized at that moment that I was in the midst of a transgression He could not easily forgive"
    Family/Relational Threats
  14. Motivation to Change:

    " I had to choose between writing and drinking, I chose writing"
    Job Loss/Economic Damage/Prestige Threats
  15. Motivation to Change:

    "You see yourself portrayed in a way that you could never have previously imagined and say no its not possible"
    Existential Issues
  16. Motivation to Change:

    " I didn't want to take the chance on dealing, of getting busted.. so I sat down and thought to myself: would I be willing to trade the rest of my life for dope?"
    Legal Issues
  17. Motivation to Change:

    "once the decision was made, it was either that or, quite frankly, death"
    Heath Concers
  18. Motivation to Change: 

    "being sick and tired of being sick and tired" - Dr. Richard Stephens
    Role Strain
  19. Sensation-Seeking Personality
    • have a strong need for varied, novel and complex sensation
    • willing to take risks for the experience
    • group that is more likely to use alcohol or drugs and engage in reckless behavior
  20. Self-Medication Hypothesis
    people use/abuse bc they are trying to relieve emotional and psychological pain
  21. 3 specific types of drugs
    • opiates - help feel more calm and mellow, counter aggressive feelings
    • stimulants - counter low energy and depression, used for ADHD ppl to calm them
    • alcohol - high doses block out unwanted feelings, low doses help connect to other people
  22. Greaves' Three Core Observations
    • Sexuality - addicts have disturbed sex lives, dont get pleasure from sex, replace it with drug use
    • Ability to play - dont know how to play without a drug, very few things hold their interest
    • Somatic Experience - out of touch with their bodies
  23. Alcohol Use Disorder (11 criteria)
    • 1. alcohol is often taken in larger amounts or over longer period of time than was intended
    • 2. persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down on alcohol use
    • 3. great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain alcohol or recover from its effects
    • 4. craving or strong urge to use alcohol
    • 5. recurrent alcohol use resulting in a failure to fulfill major obligations at work, school or home
    • 6. continued alcohol use despite having persistent or recurrent social/interpersonal problems
    • 7. important social, ocupational, recreational acitivities are given up or reduced bc of alcohol use
    • 8. recurrent alcohol use in situations where it is physically hazardous
    • 9. alcohol use is continued despite knowing that it causes problems
    • 10. tolerance - need for increased amounts of alcohol to get the same effect
    • 11. withdrawal - alcohol is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
    • 12.
  24. Peer Cluster Theory
    there is a strong association between peer drug associations and self drug use = 0.74
  25. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    assesses rates of glucose metabolism to measure brain activity
  26. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
    inject isotopes/ligands to measure brain blood flow
  27. Axon
    single long fiber that transmits messages from cell body to other neurons or body tissues
  28. Dendrites
    short fibers that recieve messages from other neurons nad relay them to the cell body
  29. Neurotransmission
    the transfer of a message from an axon of one nerve cell to the dendrites of another nerve
  30. Synapse
    the space between two neurons where chemical signals are released
  31. Neurotransmitters
    chemical signals that stimulate or inhibit the firing of an electrical impulse in the recieving neuron's dendrites
  32. Dopamine
    • originally seen as a pleasure molecule
    • now known to be more of a motivating signal
  33. 3 parts of mesolimbic dopamine system
    • ventral tegmental area (survival oriented)
    • nucleus accumbens (emotion-filled)
    • prefrontal cortex (goal-oriented)
  34. Agonist
    drug/medication that binds to receptor and activates the neuron
  35. Antagonist
    drug/medication that binds to receptor and blocks the activation of the neuron
  36. The Hijacked Brain
    • prolonged use/exposure changes brain functioning
    • neurotransmitter levels are altered
  37. Basic Hypothesis of Greaves' Existential theory of drug addiction
    alternative states serve an adaptive purpose, it is natural to pursue such states that kids are in touch with
  38. 6 Motivations to Change
    • 1. family/relational threat
    • 2. job loss/economic damage/prestige threat
    • 3. existential issues
    • 4. legal issues
    • 5. health concerns
    • 6. role strain
  39. Anhedonia
    loss of interest in something you used to be interested in because of dopamine depletion
  40. Hedonic Treadmill
    keep seeking substances that will give a brief experience of pleasure even though it continues to shut down the pleasure system
  41. Which part of these brain can help fix hedonic treadmill?
    the prefrontal cortex has to regulate the individual and stop the pursuit of pleasure
  42. Role of Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) + Executive Cognitive Functions (ECF)
    directly involved in self-regulation, volition, purposefully directed behavior, ability of indiv. to resist influence
  43. Hypofrontality
    • increased likelihood of impulsive behavior and greater focus on immediate gratification
    • due to impaired PFC/ECF
  44. 4 Routes of Administration (fastest to slowest)
    • inhalation
    • injection
    • snorting
    • ingestion
  45. How does genetics affect addiction?
    • affects the degree of reward experienced
    • affects the processing of the substance by the body
  46. DRD2
    • dopamine receptor gene
    • addicts have lower # of dopamine receptors in their brain
    • this leads to increased vulnerability to substances that activate dopamine
  47. DRD4
    • variant of dopamine receptor gene
    • association found between this and novelty seeking (personality associated w alcoholism)
  48. ALDH2*2
    • makes it harder to process alcohol
    • serves as a protective factor
    • mainly seen in Asians
    • leads to a flushing sensation when they drink
    • reduces the likelihood of developing alcoholism
  49. Cytochrome P450
    • enzyme that metabolizes drugs
    • variant of this gene leads to less efficient processing of nicotine
    • people are less likely to become smokers
  50. Naltrexone
    • medication used to treat problems with alcohol
    • targets the opioid system (which is involved in the pleasure effects of acohol) -- dampens opiate activation -- makes drink less enjoyable
    • more effective in patients with certain form of the opiate receptor
  51. Example of how social dominance is a protective factor
    • monkeys were put in a social setting
    • subordinate monkeys were in a stressful environment and had higher levels of D2 receptors than dominant monkeys
  52. 6 most dangerous drugs
    • alcohol
    • heroin
    • crack cocaine
    • methamphetamine
    • cocaine
    • tobacco
  53. Proof that addiction is a chronic disease
    • similar to other chronic diseases
    • similar relapse rates as well
    • treatment is long term, person will always be vulnerable to risk factor for the rest of their lives
  54. Attribution Theory
    if person is held as more responsible for their predicament -- the more they are blamed and the less likely they are the be given pity/help
  55. Place Preference experiment with rats
    • animals put in 2 distinct environments -- given a diff susbtance in each
    • wall is removed, allowed to roam 
    • whichever side the rat favors, indicates the reinforcing properties of that substance
  56. Why are animals used to test dependence?
    bc drugs that animals find reinforcing are likely to have a high abuse potential for humans
  57. Why do rats press more when given an agonsist?
    • bc it blocks dopamine receptors
    • since the agonist binds to the receptors and activates the neuron in its place
  58. Why do rats press less when given an antagonist?
    bc it activates dopamine receptors
  59. Rat Park results
    rats that lived in isolation drank high amounts of morphine and lived in a narcotic haze while those in rat park/colony housing barely ever touched the morphine
  60. What is the breaking point for a drug?
    • the last # of times that the mice will press the lever for a drug
    • determines the cost/price of the drug
Card Set
Exam 1
from exam 1 slides