PrevMed2- Euthanasia

  1. What are goals of mass depopulation?
    large numbers of animals, quickly, and efficiently, while still considering welfare as practicable
  2. Define a humane death. (3)
    • rapid loss of consciousness
    • followed by cardiac and respiratory arrest
    • ultimate loss of brain function
  3. How is death confirmed on farm by farm personnel? (3 requirements)
    • lack of heartbeat and spontaneous respirations for 5 minutes
    • lack of a corneal reflex
  4. What are the goals of euthanasia? (5)
    • provide humane treatment
    • select acceptable methods
    • minimize negative emotional impact
    • safeguard food chain
    • prevent or mitigate disease spread
  5. Describe how humane treatment is achieved with mass depop. (4)
    • decrease animal stress, excitement
    • do not force animals to travel quickly
    • avoid electric prods
    • handle animals quietly
    • [this is all part of normal animal handling!]
  6. What are methods of euthanasia use in mass depop? (3)
    • inhaled agents: CO2, inhaled anesthetics, CO, nitrogen and argon
    • non-inhaled agents: injectables (barbituates), topical, immersion
    • physical methods: captive bolt, blunt force, gunshot, cervical dislocation, decapitation, electrocution, foam, maceration, exsanguination
  7. Describe the use of CO2 in mass depopulation. (2)
    • compressed CO2 gas in cylinders is the only allowed source
    • must be maintained for at least one minute after death
  8. What is the only CHEMICAL euthanasia that is permitted for animals intended for human consumption?
  9. What are the advantages of CO2? (4)
    • rapid depressant, analgesia, and anesthetic
    • readily available
    • non-flammable, minimal hazard for workers
    • does not result in tissue residues
  10. What are disadvantages of CO2? (4)
    • incomplete filling of chamber can be a problem (b/c heavier than air)
    • some species can tolerate high levels of CO2
    • may take longer than means
    • high concs can be distressing to some animals
  11. What are advantages of non-inhaled agents for mass depop? (3)
    • speed of action depends on dose, conc, route, and rate of administration
    • induce euthanasia smoothly with minimal discomfort
    • barbituates are less expensive than many other agents (still usually to expensive for mass depop)
  12. What are the disadvantages of non-inhaled agents for mass depop? (6)
    • almost always impractical
    • individual handling of each animal and gaining IV access
    • trained personnel required
    • volume of agent required
    • controlled substances
    • carcass disposal
  13. Describe penetrating captive bolt for euthanasia. (3)
    • powered by gunpowder or compressed air
    • must provide sufficient energy to penetrate skull
    • placed so projectile sufficiently disrupts a cerebral hemisphere, causing sudden loss of consciousness
  14. What are advantages of the penetrating captive bolt? (2)
    • good for use in slaughterhouses and research
    • no meat contamination/ residues
  15. What are disadvantages of penetrating captive bolt euthanasia? (1)
    death may not occur if equipment is not used properly
  16. What are the advantages of gunshot for euthanasia? (3)
    • loss of consciousness if instantaneous¬†
    • minimize stress induced by handling and human contact
    • most practical and logical for wild or free-ranging species
  17. What are disadvantages of gunshot for euthanasia? (4)
    • dangerous to personnel
    • aesthetically unpleasant
    • may be difficult to hit vital area if animal is not restrained
    • brain tissue is destroyed (if you need brain samples, don't use this method)
  18. Describe the use of non-penetrating captive bolt. (2)
    • delivers a percussive blow to produce unconsciousness
    • NOT SOLE MEANS OF EUTHANASIA (unless the animal is <12# or poultry)
  19. Describe the use of blunt force trauma for euthanasia. (3)
    • single decisive blow to produces rapid unconsciousness
    • causes destruction of brain tissue, resulting in rapid unconsciousness and humane death
    • must take object to animal (not animal to object- people used to swing baby pigs)
  20. Describe the use of foam for mass depop of poultry. (5)
    • mixture of gas, water, and foam
    • occludes the upper respiratory tract
    • causes hypoxia in a rapid and humane manner
    • takes 2-4 minutes
    • this is NOT for euthanasia; only for mass depop
  21. What are acceptable methods of euthanasia for bovines? (3)
    • penetrating captive bolt
    • gunshot
    • barbituates
    • [frontal, temporal, poll)
  22. What are acceptable methods of euthanasia for poultry? (12)
    • CO2, cervical dislocation, gunshot, decapitation, non-penetrating captive bolt, electrocution, water based foam, and barbituates
    • blunt force for turkeys >12#
    • foam for mass depop
    • maceration for 1 day old chicks
    • gunshot for free-range poultry
  23. What are acceptable methods of euthanasia for pigs?
    • Pigs >70# penetrating captive bolt, gunshots, barbituates
    • Pigs 12-70# penetrating captive bolt, gunshot, CO2, barbituates
    • Pigs <12# CO2, non-penetrating captive bolt, blunt force trauma, barbituates
    • Pigs >10# electrocution
  24. What are acceptable methods of euthanasia for  horses? (3)
    • penetrating captive bolt
    • gunshot
    • barbituates
    • [front or temporal only]
  25. What are acceptable methods of euthanasia for goats and sheep?
    • penetrating captive bolt(non-enetrating if <12#)
    • gunshot
    • CO2
    • barbituates
    • blunt force trauma if <12#
    • [frontal or poll only]
  26. What are unacceptable methods of euthanasia? (4)
    • air embolism
    • disinfectants/solvents
    • drowning
    • hanging
  27. What are burial options for disposal?
    • on site
    • landfill
    • 6 feet deep, trench width, minimal side slope
  28. What are thermal methods of disposal? (3)
    • open air burning: not ideal methods b/c polluting, temperatures achieved can vary, have pathogens been inactivated?
    • on site incineration: large fans driven by diesel engines, creates turbulent environment in which incineration is greatly accelerated, required large quantity of dry fuel, faster than open-air
    • fixed site incineration: fueled by diesel, natural gas, or propane; getting shut down d/t increased regulatory compliance and inspection costs
  29. Describe the use of alkaline hydrolysis method of disposal. (3)
    • sodium or potassium hydroxide to catalyze hydrolysis of biological material into a sterile aqueous solution
    • heat and pressure also applied
    • even inactivates prions!
  30. Describe who can compost of dead animals.
    • must be a certified composter- participate in an educational course
    • use appropriate method, technique, and practice
  31. Describe the use of composting of carcasses.
    • two phases: temperature of compost pile increases and the organic materials break down into relatively small compounds, soft tissue decomposes, and bones soften
    • remaining materials (bones) break down fully and compost turns into a consistent dark brown to black soil
  32. Describe rendering.
    • recycling of raw animal tissue from food animals, and waste cooking fats and oils into a variety of value-added products
    • creates a disease transmission problem (trucks can transmit diseases b/w farms)
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PrevMed2- Euthanasia
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