Anatomy Chapter 2; The Cell: The Living Units

  1. Who is "the father of microscopy"?
    Robert Hooke
  2. What term did Hooke coin to describe the basic unit of life?
  3. What are the components of the Hierarchy of biological organization?
    • 1.Ecosystem
    • 2.Community
    • 3.Population
    • 4.Organism
    • 5.Organ System
    • 6.Organ
    • 7.Tissue
    • 8.Cell
    • 9.Molecule 
    • 10.Atom
  4. In addition to morphology, how do cells differ?
    They differ in their ability to move, their internal organization, and their metabolic activities.
  5. Despite these and numerous other differences, all cells share certain _____ _____ and carry out many _____ _____ in basically the same way.
    Structural features; complicated processes
  6. Are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids alive?
  7. What is the cell theory?
    All organisms are composed of cells and cell products.
  8. Where do cells come from?
    All cells come from previous existing cells.
  9. Are all cells within an organism the same?
  10. How many distinct cell types make up the human body?
    The body is made up of 210 distinct cells.
  11. What is the function of cells?
    Each cell performs all the functions necessary to sustain life, cells are the building block of life.
  12. We all develop from a single cell, what is this process called?
    Gastrulation process
  13. What is a zygote?
    The union of the sperm and ovum, a fertilized egg.
  14. What is the size of a single-celled human zygote formed by fertilization?
    It is smalled than a period found in text books.
  15. The zygote develops into a full-blown organism with how many cells?

    Then it is  organized into complex tissues and organs.
    100 trillion cells
  16. What does the gastrulation process consist of?
    It starts with a zygote, shortly after the process of cell division begins until a solid ball is formed. The solid ball then begins to hollow out into a blastocyst, with three inner divisions containing three layers  (cells) called: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Each of these cells will them begin to form the cells needed by our body to form organs and cells.

    Ex: central nervous system, skell, stomach
  17. All cells in our bodies originate from one initial cell:

    Which cell is needed for the  following body parts;
    • central nervous system
    • retina and lens
    • cranial an sensory
    • pigment cells
    • head connective tissue
    • epidermis
    • hair
    • mammary glands
    • Ectoderm (external layer)
  18. All cells in our bodies originate from one initial cell:Which cell is needed for the  following body parts;
    • Skull
    • head, skeletal muscle
    • skeleton
    • dermis of skin
    • connective tissue
    • urogenital system
    • heart
    • blood, lymph cells
    • spleen
    • Mesoderm (middle layer)
  19. All cells in our bodies originate from one initial cell:Which cell is needed for the  following body parts;
    • Stomach
    • colon
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • urinary bladder
    • epithelial parts of:
    • trachea
    • lungs
    • pharynx
    • thyroid
    • intestines
    • Endoderm (inner layer)
  20. What are the two major categories of cells?
    • Prokaryotic cells
    • Eukaryotic cells
  21. What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and an eukaryotic cell?
    A prokaryotic cell contains no nucleus and a eukaryotic cells has a nucleus.
  22. What are the domains of a prokaryotic cell?
    Bacteria and archaea
  23. What are the domains of a eukaryotic cell?
    Plants and animal kingdom, including fungi like multicellular molds and unicellular yeast.
  24. What types of cells do humans have?
  25. This cell consist of a single enclosed compartment that is surrounded by a plasma membrane, lacks a defined nucleus and has a relatively simple organization. Its DNA is located in  a nucleoid region.
    Prokaryotic cells
  26. In prokaryotic cells DNA is located where?
    Nucleoid region
  27. This is the most numerous prokaryotes, it does not have membrane-bound compartments but has many proteins that are precisely localized in their aqueous interior or cytosol, indicating the presence of some internal organization.
  28. The fluid material contained by the plasma membrane and the cell wall is called?
  29. This cell contains a defined membrane-bound nucleus that is  absent in prokaryotes.The nucleus segregates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell.
    Eukaryotic  cells
  30. A Eukaryotic organism can be either ______ or _____. They are still considered one cell.
  31. Within our bodies there are many different cell types, however, they virtually share the same basic parts and can be described in terms of a _____ _____.
    generalized cell
  32. What are the tree main parts of a cell:
    plasma membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus
  33. Name the structure:
    • This structure regulates what passes through, defines the extent of the cell (separates the living cell from the non-living surroundings).It is the thin flexible layer that separates the intracellular (inside) and the extracellular (outside) compartments
    • Plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
  34. What is formed by a type of molecule called phospholipids?
    A two-layered membrane called  the phospholipid  bilayer
  35. What are phospholipids composed of:
    2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate group
  36. What part of the phospholipid are non-polar or hydrophobic(H2O fearing)?
    2 fatty acid chains (the tails)
  37. What part of the phospholipid are polar or hydrophilic (H2O loving)?
    phosphate group (heads)
  38. What does either side of a cell consist of?
    aqueous substances
  39. What do most membranes have embedded in the phospholipid bilayer?
    specific proteins
  40. Proteins make up, what percent of the membrane mass?
    50 percent
  41. What can drift about in the plane of the membrane?

    This behavior leads to the description of a membrane as  a _____ _____.
    • membrane phospholipids and proteins
    • fluid mosaic
  42. When molecules can move freely within the membrane it is known as ?
  43. A diversity of proteins exists within the membrane, they are called?
  44. What spans the entire width of membrane and contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and are firmly embedded?
    Integral membrane proteins, also known as transmembrane proteins
  45. These proteins do not span the entire membrane; are loosely associated with other proteins or lipid molecules, what are they called?
    Peripheral membrane proteins
  46. What are the components that provide rigidity within the membrane?
    glycolipids (10%), cholesterol (5-20%), and carbohydrates
  47. What are the outside fluids called of a membrane?
    interfacial fluids
  48. What are the functions of membrane proteins?
    • 1. attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
    • 2. cell signaling
    • 3. enzymatic activity
    • 4. transport
    • 5. intercellular joining
    • 6. cell-cell recognition
  49. What is the function of the selective permeable membranes of the cell?
    provides a barrier against substances outside the cell, and some plasma membranes act as receptors for cellular communication.
  50. What allows some substances to cross from the outside to the inside of the cell or from the inside to the outside of cell, more easily than others and can block passage of some substances altogether?
    selective permeable membrane
  51. What determines  what goes through a selective membrane?
    size and charge
  52. What is diffusion?
    It is the movement of molecules from a high to a low concentrate.
  53. What type of transport is diffusion considered?
    It is considered a passive transport; no energy is needed.
  54. What is  facilitated diffusion?
    It is the  transport of some substances by specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors.
  55. Is the traffic of some substances only able to occur through transport proteins?
    Yes traffic of some substances can only occur through transport proteins
  56. An example of a substance that requires a transport protein to move into a cell is:
  57. What is osmosis?
    Osmosis is the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane; from high to low
  58. What liquid is the most powerful solvent?
    water is the most powerful solvent there is.
  59. Why is osmosis important for animal cells?
    Because the survival of a cell depends on its ability to balance water  uptake and loss.
  60. What is an isotonic solution?
    An isotonic solution is the equal concentration of ions in solution and cell.
  61. What is considered a hypertonic solution?
    A hypertonic solution consist of a  higher concentration of ions in solution that in cell.
  62. What is a hypotonic solution?
    A hypotonic solution is when there is a lower concentration of ions in solution than in cell.
  63. What happens during equilibrium to a cell?
    There is  equal isotonic solution in the cell and in the solution.
  64. What happens to a cell when in hypertonic solution.
    The cell shrinks, because there is a higher concentration of ions in the solution than in the cell.
  65. What happens to the cell when in hypotonic solution?
    The cell swells up, because there is lower concentration of ions in the solution than in the cell.
  66. What is osmoregulation?
    It is the control of water balance in animals
  67. The mechanism by which particles enter cells is known as?
  68. What are the three forms of endocytosis?
    • 1. phagocytosis
    • 2. pinocytosis
    • 3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  69. When a cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole it is known as:
    phagocytosis (cellular eating)
  70. What process is primarily used for the absorption of extracellular fluids (ECF)?
    pinocytosis (cellular drinking)
  71. How does pinocytosis contrast to phagocytosis?
    In contrast to phagocytosis, pinocytosis generates very small vesicles. Its also very unspecific in the substances that it transports.
  72. How are receptor- mediated endocytosis triggered?
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is triggered by the binding of external molecules to membrane proteins.
  73. What happens upon membrane proteins binding to certain molecules?
    Upon membrane protein binding to certain molecules, the membrane invaginates and forms a coated pit which then pinch off to become a coated vesicle.
  74. A mechanism that moves substances (enclosed in a vesicle) out of the cell is called?
  75. Describe the process of exocytosis.
    Vesicles migrater to the plasma membrane; proteins from the vesicles (v-SNAREs)  binds with membrane proteins (t-SNAREs);  lipid layers from both membranes fuse, and the vesicles releases its contents to the outside of the cell.
  76. Name the part of the cell that lies internal to the plasma membrane and external to the nucleus.
    cytoplasm ("cell forming material")
  77. What are the three major elements that make up the cytoplasm?
    • 1. cytosol
    • 2. organelles
    • 3. inclusions
  78. This element is the jelly-like fluid containing substance within the cell.  It consist of water, ions, and enzymes. Makes up half of the  volume of the cytoplasm and it is fluid in which other cytoplasmic elements are suspended. It is also known as a cell forming material.
  79. The cytoplasm contains about nine types of organelles, they are:
    • 1. the mitochondria
    • 2. ribosomes
    • 3. lysosomes
    • 4. cytoskeleton
    • 5. centrioles
    • 6. golgi apparatus
    • 7. rough and smooth ER
    • 8.peroxisomes
  80. Function of the mitochondria are:
    Make ATP
  81. Functions of the ribosomes :
    site of protein synthesis and translation
  82. Functions of the lysosomes?
    intercellular digestion
  83. Functions of the of the cytoskeleton
    provides mechanical support to the cell and maintains its shape
  84. Functions of the centrioles:
    organize mitotic spindle during mitosis
  85. Functions of the golgi apparatus
    packages and ships membrane bound proteins
  86. Functions of the rough ER
    makes all membrane proteins and membrane
  87. Functions of the smooth ER
    stores calcium and makes enzymes for lipid metabolism
  88. peroxisomes
  89. What are ribosomes constructed of?
    proteins and ribosomal DNA
  90. This organelle is constructed of proteins and ribosomal RNA, it is the site of protein synthesis and translation. It does not have  a membrane surrounding it, and therefore is not membrane bound. Which organelle is this?
  91. Name the types of  ribosomes found in the cell:
    free ribosomes and attached ribosomes
  92. Describe a free ribosome.
    A free ribosome floats in cytosol, makes soluble proteins and function in cytosol. Starts and ends translation on a free ribosome. It makes proteins that are not membrane bound.
  93. Describe an attached ribosome.
    An attached ribosome is attached to the rough ER and makes membrane proteins or exports proteins. Starts on free and finishes translation on attached, it is a membrane bound protein.
  94. Ribosomes build all the cell's proteins through a process called?
    Central Dogma of molecular biology
  95. Describe how the  Central Dogma of Molecular Biology work.
    • The Central Dogma of Molecular biology
    • DNA(1) > RNA(2)>mRNA(3)>proteins

    • What occurs and where....
    • 1. Transcription (nucleus)
    • 2. Post transcription modification (nucleus)
    • 3. Translation (cytoplasm)
  96. What targets the processes of the ribosomes?
  97. An extensive system of membrane-walled envelopes and tubes
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) "network within the cytoplasm)
  98. Ribosomes stud the external surfaces; envelope stacks called cisternae; makes all protein and membrane. What organelle is this?
    Rough ER
  99. Consist of tubules in a branching network; no ribosomes are attached; therefore no protein synthesis; stoer CA+2, and makes enzymes for lipid metabolism. What organelle is this?
    Smooth ER
  100. What happend after the rough ER synthesizes a molecule?
    It packages the molecule into transport vesicles
  101. How does the  smooth ER differ from the rough ER?
    The smooth ER lacks the surface ribosomes of ER and produces lipids, including steroids.
  102. A stack of 3-10 disk shaped, membrane-bound envelopes (cisternae)-works in partnership with the ER; sorts products of the rough ER at the cis end and sends them to proper destination from the trans end.
    golgi apparatus ("packaging & shipping center")
  103. The "power plant" of the cell; generates most of the cell's energy ATP via cellular respiration.
  104. Is enclosed by a double membrane; the inner membrane folds in forming shelf- like cristae. Contains own DNA (maternal DNA)
  105. A spherical membranous bag containing digestive enzymes, "demolition crew" that break down macromolecules.
  106. They are found in white blood cells, immune cells and melanocytes.
    secretory lysosomes
  107. Describe how lysosome digests food.
    lysosome digest ingest bacteria, virusus, and the toxins; degrade nonfunctional organelles; breakdown glycogen and release thyroid hormone; breakdown non-useful tissue (webbing between fingers and toes during fetal development); breakdown bone to release Ca2+
  108. Peroxisomes  are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of _____ _____ and other _____.
    fatty acids; metabolites
  109. _____ are membranous sacs containing oxidases and catalases; "toxic waste plants"
  110. What detoxifies harmful or toxic substances;  break down long chains of fatty acids(numerous in the liver and kidneys); neutralize dangerous free radicals and break down poisons?
  111. These are highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons.
    Free radicals
  112. This is the infrastructure of the cell consisting of a network of rods/fibers that run throughout the cytosol.
  113. What provides mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape and provides machinery for various cellular movement?
  114. The cytoskeleton contains three types of protein rods (not covered by membranes):
    • 1. Microtubules
    • 2. Microfilaments
    • 3. Intermediate filaments
  115. What is a cylindrical structures made of proteins called tubulin, radiates from centrosomes (cell center) ?
  116. What cytoskeleton element has the largest diameter, are hollow tubes and made of spherical subunit?
  117. What attaches to and moves along microtubules?
  118. Microtubules are remarkably dynamic organelles, constantly growing out from the cell center. What else does a microtubule constantly do?
    assemble and reassemble
  119. Name the filaments of contractile protein actin that interact with myosin to create cell division, perform endo- and exocytosis, and play a role in pseudopod extension and reaction.
    microfilaments (actin filaments)
  120. What attaches to and moves along actin filaments?
  121. What two cytoskeleton elements constantly assemble and disassemble?
    microtubules and microfilaments (actin filaments)
  122. What cytoskeleton element consist of  tough protein fibers, are the most stable and permanent, help cells resist pulling forces and play a role in linking cells together?
    intermediate filaments
  123. What cytoskeleton element provides tensile strength (helps resist pulling forces)?
    intermediate filaments
  124. What  is a spherical structure in the cytoplasm?
  125. What is composed of centrosome matrix (outer cloud) and centrioles?
  126. Where are microtubules anchored at?
    the centrosome (microtubule organizing center)
  127. Name the paired cylindrical bodies forming a pinwheel array of nine triplets of microtubules=27 short microtubules; act in forming cilia and flagella; and organize mitotic spindle during mitosis?
  128. What are cilia and flagella considered?
    motile appendages
  129. How do flagella propel the cell?
    in a whip-like motion
  130. How does cilia move?
    in a coordinated  back and forth motion?
  131. What is an inclusion?
    temporary structures that are not present in all cell types
  132. What may consist of pigments, crystals of protein, and food stores (most important kind of food stores are lipid droplets and glycosomes)?
  133. Where are small lipid droplets found?
    in liver cells and fat cells
  134. Glycosomes store sugar in the form of _____, which are long chains of glucose?
  135. What is considered the "central core" or "kernel", the control center of  a cell, contains DNA and directs the cell's activity?
    the nucleus
  136. What is the largest part of the cell?
    The nucleus
  137. What is two parallel membranes separated by fluid-filled space?
    Nuclear envelope
  138. What is known as the "little nucleus"- is located in the center of the nucleus; contains parts of several chromosomes; and the site of ribosome subunit manufacturing?
  139. What are the three parts of the nucleus?
    • 1. nuclear envelope
    • 2. nucleolus
    • 3. chromatin
  140. What is contained within the nucleus?
  141. The DNA in a cell is packaged  into an elaborate, multilevel system of what?
    coiling and folding chromatin
  142. What is hetarochromatin?
    tightly packaged chromatin
  143. What is euchromatin?
    loosely packaged chromatin
  144. DNA is a long double helix, that is compose of four kinds of subunits called?
  145. DNA is a long double helix, that is composed of four kinds of subunits called nucleotides, each of which contains a distinct base, what are these bases?
    • Thymine (T)
    • Adenine (A)
    • Cytosine (C) 
    • Guanine (G)
  146. In DNA Bonding Purines are:
    A & G (adenine and guanine)
  147. In DNA Bonding Pyrimidines are:
    C & T (Cytosine and Thymine) 

    Δ CuT Δ
  148. In DNA Bonding; there are 3 hydrogen bonds between?
    cytosine and guanine
  149. In DNA Bonding; there are 2 hydrogen bonds between?
    adenine and thymine
  150. At what point are chromosomes seen?
    When cells are dividing is when you will see chromosomes
  151. Are composed of DNA and histone proteins;
  152. Contains tightly coiled strands of DNA;
    condensed chromatin
  153. What is another name for condensed chromatin?
    heterochromatin= compacted
  154. Contains uncoiled strans of DNA when DNA's genetic code is copied onto mRNA (transcrition);
    extended chromatin
  155. what is another name for extended chromatin?
    euchromatin= relaxed
  156. The highest level of organization of chromatin' contains a long molecule of DNA; highest level of packing.
  157. How many chromosomes are there in a typical human cell?
    46 chromosomes; 23 pairs
  158. A pictorial representation of chromosomes within an individual in known as;
  159. What is a homologous chromosome?
    It is two different chromosomes one from mom, one from dad
  160. How does DNA control the cell?
    DNA controls the cell by transferring its coded information into RNA
  161. What is the information in the RNA used for?
    Th information in the RNA is used to make proteins
  162. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
    DNA (transcription; occurs in the nucleus) ↦RNA (post-transcription modification; occurs in the nucleus) ↦ mRNA (translation; occurs in the cytoplasm)  ↦ proteins
  163. What are the general functions of the nucleus?

    Involved in manufacturing
    DNA synthesis; RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomal subunits
  164. What are the functions of ribosomes? 

    Involved in manufacturing
    Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
  165. What are the general functions of the Rough ER?

    Involved in manufacturing
    Synthesis of membrane proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; and formation of transport  vesicles
  166. What are the functions of the Smooth ER?

    Involved in manufacturing
    lipid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; and calcium ion storage
  167. What are the functions of the Golgi apparatus?

    Involved in manufacturing
    Modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; as well as formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
  168. What is the function of the lysosomes?
    • Involved in breakdown.
    • Digestion of nutrients, bacteria, and damaged organelles; and destruction of certain cells during embryonic development.
  169. What is the function of the peroxisomes?
    • Involved in breakdown
    • Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O by-product
  170. What is the function of the vacuoles?
    • Involved in breakdown
    • digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; and water balance
  171. What is the function of the mitochondria?
    • Involved in energy processing?
    • conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
  172. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
    • Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    • Maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission of signals from exterior of cell to interior.
  173. What is the function of the extracellular matrix?

    Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    Binding of cells in tissues; surface protection; regulation of cellular activities
  174. What is the function of the cell junctions?

    Involves support,movement, and communication between cells.
    Communicatino between cells; binding of cells in tissues
  175. What does the cell theory state?
    Cells are the basic unit of life, all organisms are made up of one or more cells, all cells come from pre-existing cells
  176. How do cells come from pre-existing cells?
    through cell reproduction via cell division
  177. What is reproduction?
    It is the birth of new organism.
  178. When does reproduction occur?
    It occurs moe often at the cellular level.
  179. Before development and differentiation of cell; what must you have?
    you must have cell division
  180. What does cell dividion play a role in?
    -The replacement of lost or damaged cells and the cell reproduction and growth.
  181. Before a parent cell divides, it duplicates all of it genetic material. Afer cell division the two resulting _____ _____ are genetically identical.
    daughter cells
  182. The complete set of an organisms genes is know as as;
  183. Where is the genome  located?
    It is located mainly on chromosomes in the cells nucleus
  184. What are ribosomes made of?
    Protein and Ribosomal RNA
  185. What are chromosomes made of?
    They are made of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein molecules
  186. Before a cell divides, it duplicates all of its chromosomes, resulting in two copies called?
    Sister Chromatids
  187. When the cell divides what occurs to sister chromatids?
    they seperate from each other
  188. Eukaryotic cells that divide undergo an orderly sequence of events called  the;
    cell cycle
  189. What are the two distinct phases the cell cycle consist of:
    interphase (90%) and the mitotic phase (10%)
  190. What what occurs in  the G1 Phase ?
    cell growth
  191. What is mitosis?
    mitosis is the division of the chromosomes
  192. Mitosis is preceded by what Phase?
  193. what  does  interphase consist of?
    • G1 (growth)
    • S (growth and DNA synthesis)
    • G2 (Growth and final preparation for division)
  194. Mitosis consist of four distinct phases, they are?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  195. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Asters (microtubule arrays) are seen; chromatin condenses into chromosomes attached to one another by their centromere. Nucleoli disappears, centriole pairs separate and mitotic spindles is formed. The nuclear envelope disappears and the microtubules attach to kinetochores and begin moving sister chromatids to center of cell.
  196. What is an asters?
  197. What is kinetochores?
    sister chromatids + proteins = kinetochores
  198. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Sister chromatids cluster at the middle of the cell with their centromeres aligned at the exact center. This arrangement of chromosomes along a plane midway between the poles is called the metaphase plate.
  199. The arrangement of chromosomes along a plane midway between the poles is called:
    metaphase plate
  200. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Centromeres of the sister chromatids split and each becomes a chromosome again, motor proteins in kinetochores (sister chromatids + proteins) pull chromosomes toward poles.
  201. What is telophase compared to prophase?
    Telophase is the reversal of prophase, it cleans up the aftereffects of mitosis
  202. Name this phase of Mitosis:

    Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin.
  203. When is mitosis complete?
    at telophase, but cell division has yet one more step to complete
  204. When chromosomes decondensed what do they form?
    they form chromatids
  205. How is the nuclear envelope formed during telophase?
    By using fragments of the parent cell's  nuclear membrane
  206. What is cytokinesis?
    It is te division of the cytoplasm
  207. When does cytokinesis typically occur?
    during telophase
  208. Are mitosis and cytokinesis two different phases in the cell cycle?
    yes mitosis and cytokinesis  are two different phases in the cell cycle
  209. When is the cleavage furrow formed?
    during cytokinesis
  210. what created the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis?
    a contracting ring of microfilaments?
  211. Normal plant and animal cells have a ___ ____ ____ ____.... a series of checkpoints
    cell cycle control system
  212. What happens when the cell cycle control system malfunction?
    cell may reproduce at the wrong time or place, a bening tumor may form
  213. What are the cell cycles check points?
    G1, S, G2 and mitosis
  214. What is cancer?
    Uncontrolled cell division
  215. Meaning of malignant?
  216. Meaning of benign?
    not harmful
  217. Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display the following characteristics;
    • 1. uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits)
    • 2. invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues)
    • 3. and sometimes metastasis ( the spread to other lcoations in the body via lymph or blood)
  218. What causes cancer?
    Cancer is caused by a breakdown in control of cell cycle.The cancerous cells ignores the checkpoint.
  219. During cancer what happens to cell division?
    cancer cells divide excessively
  220. Where do cancer cells spread from?
    cancer cells spread from a malignant tumor
  221. Meaning of metastasis?
    the spreading of cancerous cells
  222. Types of cancer treatments:
    Radiation therapy will disrupt cell division and chemotherapy involves drugs that disrupt cell division.
  223. Cancer prevention includes changes in lifestyle like:.
    Not smoking, avoiding exposure to the sun, eating a high-fiber, low-fat diet, visiting the doctor regularly and performing self-examination
  224. What are specialized functions of cells related to the shape of cells and the arrangement of organelles
    cellular diversity
  225. Cells that connect body parts or cover organs are:
    fibroblast, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells.
  226. What is a  fibroblast?
    makes an secretes protein component of fibers
  227. What is concaved shaped, provides surface area for uptake of respiratory gasses?
    erythrocytes (RBC)
  228. What is hexagonal shape and allows maximum number of epithelial cells to pack together?
    epithelial cells
  229. Which are the cells that move organs and body parts?
    skeletal and smooth muscle cells
  230. Describe skeletal and smooth muscle cells:
    they are elongated and filled with actin and myosin; contract forcefully
  231. Name cells that store nutrients:
    fat cells; adipocyte
  232. How are fat cells (adipocytes) composed?
    Their shape is produced by large fat droplet in its cytoplasm
  233. Name cells that fight diseases:
  234. What is a macrophage?
    phagocytes that move through the tissue to reach infection sites
  235. Name cells that gather information:
  236. Describe a neuron.
    has long processes for receiving and transmitting messages
  237. Name cells of reproduction:
    Oocyte(female) and Sperm (male)
  238. Describe an oocyte.
    the largest cell in the body, contains many copies of organelles for distribution to daughter cells
  239. Dercribe a sperm:
    possesses long tail for swimming to the egg for fertalization
  240. Developmental aspects of cells:
    • Youth begin as what?
    • a fertilized egg
  241. During this developmental aspect of cells: cells in embryo are exposed to chemical signals that channel cells into specific pathways of development. A cells specialization leads to structural variation of cell types
  242. Developmental aspects of cells:
    • Aging is a complex process caused by a variety of factors such as:
    • free radical theory, mitochondrial theory, and generic theory
  243. What is the free radical theory?
    • 1) Damage from by products of cellular metabolism
    • 2) Radicals build up and damage essential molecules of cells
  244. What does the mitochondrial theory consist of?
    the mitochondrial theory beliefs that a decrease in production of energy by mitochondria weakens and ages our cells
  245. Generit theory proposes what?
    that aging is programmed by genes.
  246. How do telomeres affect the developmental aspect of cells?
    Telomeres are the end caps on a chromosome that limit the maximum number of times a cell can divide.
  247. What do telomerase do?
    Telomerase prevents telomeres from degrading.
Card Set
Anatomy Chapter 2; The Cell: The Living Units
Anatomy Chapter 2; The Cell: The Living Units