Chapter 2 Vocab

  1. Hydrocarbon
    compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen
  2. Saturated Hydrocarbons
    compound with only single bonds
  3. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    compounds with at least one double or triple bond
  4. Alkane
    compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen and single bonds
  5. Acyclic Alkanes
    compound composed of carbon and hydrogen in a chain-like conformation
  6. Cycoalkane
    cyclic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
  7. Heteroatoms
    • atoms in a molecule that are not carbon or hydrogen
    • cyclic structures with heteroatoms = heterocycles
  8. Hybridization
    combination of atomic orbitals to form new (hybrid) orbitals of different shapes and orientations
  9. how are bond distance and stability related?
    the shorter the bond the more stable it is
  10. carbons bonded to four atoms undergo what kind of hybridization?
    sp3 hybridization
  11. carbons bonded to three atoms undergo what kind of hybridization?
    sp2 hybridization
  12. carbons bonded to two atoms (+ triple bond) undergo what kind of hybridization?
    sp hybridization
  13. Branched alkanes
    alkanes that have carbon that are bonded to more than two carbons (aka skeletal isomers)
  14. Alkyl Group
    hydrocarbon chain with one open point of attachment (often R is used to describe a generic alkyl group)
  15. Conformational Isomers
    isomers that differ as a result of the degree of rotation around a carbon-carbon single bond
  16. Staggered
    conformation around a carbon-carbon single bond in which attached atoms are as far apart as possible
  17. Eclipsed
    conformation around a carbon-carbon single bond in which attached atoms are as close together as possible
  18. Torsional/Dihedreal Angle
    angle between the bonds in the newman projection (aka end on end projection drawing)
  19. Potential Energy Diagram / Reaction Coordinate Diagrams
    a graphical depiction of energy changes during a chemical reaction
  20. Transition State
    • maximum in a potential energy diagram
    • a dynamic process of change in which bonds are being broken and formed in a reaction
    • eclipsed form can be viewed as the transition state between two staggered forms
  21. Energy Barrier
    energy needed to go over a transition state
  22. Energy of Activation
    the energy difference between reactants and a transition state
  23. Heat of Reaction
    • the difference in energy between the reactants and the products
    • endothermic vs. exothermic
  24. Catalysts
    a reagent that influences the course and rate of a reaction without being consumed
  25. the two different kinds of staggered forms?
    • Anti and Gauche
    • anti is the most stable
  26. Isomers
    compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures
  27. Skeletal Isomer
    compounds that differ in their carbon skeleton
  28. Functional Group Isomer
    compounds containing different functional groups
  29. Positional Isomers
    when the position of the functional group differs
  30. Fused Ring Systems
    when several cycles/rings share two common atoms and the bond between them
  31. Spiro Compound
    when two rings share one carbon
  32. Bridged Ring Compounds
    two rings share two non-connected atoms, thereby building a bridgehead with the two atoms
  33. What position do bulky substituents prefer in a substitute cycloalkane?
    equatorial position (NOT axial)
  34. Geometric Isomers
    when atoms/groups display different orientation differences around a double bond/ring
  35. Cis Isomer
    groups are on the same side of a ring/double bond
  36. Trans Isomer
    groups are on opposite sides of a ring/double bond
  37. 4 Properties of Alkanes
    • melting and boiling points increase as molecular weight increases
    • Boiling point decreases with chain branching BUT melting point increases
    • non-polar substances = not soluble in water
    • alkanes are less dense than water, so they swim on top of it
  38. What is the cracking process?
    fractional distillation of crude oil by boiling at different temperatures to separate alkanes
  39. Two types of reactions that can be done with Alkanes
    • oxidation
    • halogenation
  40. What is Halogenation
    substituting one atom for a Halogen (chlorination, bromination, etc)
  41. How to control the degree of halogenation?
    by controlling the percentages of the alkane and the halogen
  42. 3 Properties of Haloalkanes
    • toxic and cause cancer
    • Major component of free radicals in ozone layer
    • polar bond (partial charges)
  43. Bronsted Acid
    acid that is a hydrogen ion donor in chemical reaction
  44. Bronsted Base
    base that can accept protons during a reaction
  45. Strong Acid
    • acid that is 100% ionized in a water solution
    • HCl, Her, H2NO3
  46. Weak Acid
    • acid that is only partially ionized in water solutions
    • H3C-CO2H
  47. The relationship between pKa and acidity?
    the lower the pKa, the stronger the acid
  48. Conjugate Base
    species formed by loss of a proton from an acid
  49. Conjugated Acid
    species formed by gain of proton by a base
  50. Lewis Acid
    • a substance that can accept a pair of electrons for sharing from a Lweis base in a chemical reaction
    • electrophiles are lewis acids
  51. Lewis Base
    • a substance with an outer-shell non-bonding electron pair that is can share in a chemical reaction with a Lewis Acid
    • nucleophiles are lewis bases
Card Set
Chapter 2 Vocab
Chapter 2: Alkanes