Sociology Vocab 1

  1. Attitude
    A predisposition about something in one's environment.
  2. Conflict Theory
    A theory that focuses on contradictory interests, inequality between social groups, and the resulting conflict and change.
  3. Contradiction
    Opposing phenomena within the same social system.
  4. Critical Thinking
    The analysis evaluation of information.
  5. Dependent Variable
    Variable in an experience that is INFLUENCED by the independent variable. 

    *Results are dependent on what the independent variable does.*
  6. Fallacy of Appeal to Predjiduce
    Argument by appealing to popular prejudices or passions.
  7. Fallacy of Authority
    Argument by an illegitimate appeal to authority.
  8. Fallacy of Circular Reasoning
    Use of conclusions to support the assumptions that were necessary to make the conclusions.
  9. Fallacy of Composition
    The assertion that what is true to the part is necessarily true of the whole.
  10. Fallacy of Dramatic Instance
  11. Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness
    Making something abstract into something concrete.
  12. Fallacy of Non-Sequitor
    Something that does not follow logically from what has preceded it.
  13. Fallacy of Personal Attack
    Argument by attacking the opponent personally rather than dealing with the issue.
  14. Fallacy of Retrospective Determinism
    The argument that things could not have worked out any other way than they did.
  15. Frequency Distribution
    The organization of data to show the number of times each item occurs.
  16. Ideology
    A set of ideas that explain or justify some aspect of social reality.
  17. Independent Variable
    The variable in an experiment that is MANIPULATED to see how it effects changes in the dependent variable.
  18. Institution
    A collective pattern of dealing with a basic social function.

    • FAMILY
    • MEDIA
  19. Interaction
    Reciprocally influenced behavior on the part of 2 or more people.
  20. Mean
    The average.
  21. Median
    The score below which are half of the score and above which are the other half.

    *Number in the middle*
  22. Norm
    Shared exceptions about behavior.
  23. Participant Observations
    A method of research in which one directly participates and observes the social reality being studied.
  24. Personal Problem
    A problem that can be explained in terms of qualities of the individual.
  25. Reification
    Doing what is abstract as something concrete.
  26. Role
    The behavior associated with a particular position in the social structure.
  27. Social Problem
    • A condition or pattern of behavior that contradicts some other condition or pattern of behavior;
    • -is defined as incompatible with the desired quality of life
    • -is caused, facilitated, or prolonged by social factors
    • -Involves intergroup conflict
    • -and requires social action for resolution.
  28. Socioeconomic Status
    Position in the social system based on economic resources, power, education, prestige, and lifestyle.
  29. Stratification System
    Arrangement of society into groups that are unequal with regard to such valued resources as wealth, power, and prestige.
  30. Structural Functionalism
    A sociological theory that focuses on social systems and how their individual parts maintain order.
  31. Survey
    A method of research in which a sample of people are interviewed or given questionnaires in order to get data on some phenomena.
  32. Symbolic Interactionism
    A sociologic theory that focuses on the interaction between individuals, the individuals perception of situations, and they way in which social life is constructed through interaction.
  33. Test of Significance
    A statistical method for determining the probability that research findings occurred by chance.
  34. Values
    Things preferred because they are defined as having worth.
  35. Consequences of Problems: Personal
    Passively accept circumstances, view self as inadequate
  36. Individual Strategies
    • Strategies employed to cope with a personal problem.
    • - Escape Mechanism (neurosis, illness, self destructive behavior)
    • - Sought from specialists (psychologist or religious advisor)
  37. Interdependent parts of a problem:
    Institutions, norms, roles, values
  38. Society is an integrated system of interdependent parts bound together by shared values and norms.
    Structural Functionalism
  39. Society is a system of diverse groups with conflicting values and interests, vying with each other for power, wealth, and other valued resources.
    Conflict Theory
  40. Quality of Life (Thoreau) the point of death "I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living so dear; nor did I wish to practice resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life."
  41. Society is an arena of interacting individuals who behave in accord with their definitions of situations and who create shared meanings as they interact.
    Symbolic interaction.
  42. A social problem is a condition or pattern of behavior that... (4 points)
    • 1. Contradicts some other condition or pattern of behavior and is defined as incompatible with the desired quality of life.
    • 2. Is caused, facilitated, or prolonged by factors that operate at multiple levels of social life.
    • 3. Involves intergroup conflict.
    • 4. Requires social action to be resolved.
  43. Consequences of Problems: Social
    Recognizes the need for collective action.
  44. Sense of Inadequacy
    Blaming or downgrading oneself.
  45. Variables
    Any trait or characteristic that varies in value or magnitude.
Card Set
Sociology Vocab 1
Vocab quiz 1