A&P 2 Endocrine System

  1. How does the endocrine system influence metabolic activity?
    By means of hormones
  2. What are hormones?
    Chemical messengers that travel through the blood and regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body.
  3. Hormones travel through the _____.
  4. Hormonal responses last less compared to nervous responses?

    T or F
    • False.
    • Once initiated, hormonal responses tend to last much longer than those induced by the nervous system
  5. Hormones molecules control and integrate the following processes: 

    Growth and Development 

    What other 3 are mentioned in the text?
    • Maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood.
    • Regulation of cellular metabolism and energy metabolism
    • Mobilization of body defenses
  6. Hormones molecules control and integrate the following processes:

    Maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood.
    Regulation of cellular metabolism and energy metabolism
    Mobilization of body defenses

    Name the other 2 mentioned in the text.
    • Reproduction 
    • Growth and Development
  7. Endocrine organs are widely scattered about the body.

    T or F
  8. What are the two types of glands?
    • Endocrine 
    • Exocrine
  9. Which of the 2 types of glands have ducts that carry substances to a membrane surface?
  10. Which of the 2 types of glands produce non-hormonal substances, such as saliva and sweat?
  11. Which of the 2 types of glands are considered ductless and produce hormones?
  12. Which of the 2 types of glands release hormones into the surrounding tissue, typically highly vascular and lymphatic drainage that receives their hormones?
  13. The ____, along with its neural function, produce and releases hormones.
  14. The hypothalamus is considered a ______ organ.
  15. Endocrine glands include . . .
    • Pituitary 
    • Thyroid 
    • Parathyroid 
    • Adrenal 
    • Pineal glands
  16. Hormones are ____-distance chemical signals that travel in blood and lymph throughout the body.
  17. Autocrine and paracrines, on the other hand, are _____- distance signals.
  18. What are chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them?
  19. Certain prostaglandins released by smooth muscle cells cause those smooth muscle cells to contract. 

    These chemicals are an example of what?
  20. What chemical acts locally (within the same tissue) but affects cell types other than those releasing the ____ chemicals?
    • Pancrines
    • Paracrine
  21. The chemical structure of the hormone determines one critical property of a hormone: . . .
    Its water solubility
  22. A hormone's water solubility affects what 3 things?
    • How the hormone is transported in the blood
    • How long it lasts before it is degraded
    • What receptors it can act upon
  23. A variety of hormone can be classified as either ____ or ____ based.
    • Amino acid
    • Steroid
  24. Most hormones are ___ based.
    Amino acid
  25. What hormone base are water soluble and cannot cross the plasma membrane?
    Amino acid
  26. Peptides are ___ chains of amino acids
    • Proteins are ___ chains of amino acids
    • Short
    • Long
  27. What hormone based are synthesized from cholesterol?
  28. Only ___ and ___ hormones are steroid based. These hormones are all lipid ____ and ___ cross the plasma membrane.
    • Gonadal
    • Adrenocortical 
    • Soluble
    • Can
  29. Some researchers add a third class (apart from amino and steroid based), ______, which contain _____ and _____. Nearly all cell membranes release these biologically active lipids (made from arachidonic acid).
    • Eicosanoids 
    • Leukotrienes 
    • Prostaglandins
  30. ____ (eicosanoids) are signaling chemicals that mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions.
  31. ____ (eicosaniods) have multiple targets and effects, ranging from raising blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation
  32. Hormones influence the activity of only . . .
    Tissue cells that have receptors for it.
  33. Tissue cells that have specific receptors for a hormone are called
    Target cells
  34. Hormones bring about their characteristic effects by ___ target cell activity, increasing or decreasing the rates of normal cellular processes.
  35. The precise response of a hormone depends on the ____ type.

    For example, epinephrine in smooth muscle causes contraction, but in contact with other cell types has a different effect.
    Target cell
  36. A hormone typically produces one or more of the following changes: 

    Alters . . . 
    Stimulates synthesis of enzymes and other proteins within the cell
    Activates or deactivates _____.
    Induces secretory activity
    Stimulates mitosis
    • Plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, or both, by opening or closing ion channels
    • Enzymes
  37. A hormone typically produces one or more of the following changes: 

    Alters plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, or both, by opening or closing ion channels
    Stimulates . . .
    Activates or deactivates enzymes.
    Induces secretory activity
    Stimulates ____
    • Synthesis of enzymes and other proteins within the cell
    • Mitosis
  38. How a hormone communicates with a target cell depends on the chemical nature of the hormone and the cellular location of the receptor. In general, hormones act at receptors in one of two ways: 

    They are either ____ or _____ soluble hormones.
    • Water 
    • Lipid
  39. All amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone is ____-soluble.
  40. What type of soluble hormone acts on receptors in the plasma membrane?
  41. Steroid based and thyroid hormone are ____-soluble hormones.
  42. What type of soluble hormones act on receptors inside the cell, which directly activate genes?
  43. Concerning water soluble hormones, its receptors are usually coupled via regulatory molecules called _____ to one or more intracellular second messengers which mediate the target cell's response.
    G protein
  44. With the exception of thyroid hormone, amino acid-based hormones exert their signaling effects through intracellular _______ generated when a hormone binds to a receptor in the plasma membrane.
    Second Messengers
  45. What three plasma membrane components are required for the cAMP signaling mechanism?
    • Hormone receptor
    • G protein 
    • Effector enzyme
  46. Cyclic AMP: 

    1.Hormone Binds receptor
    2. ___________________
    3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase 
    4. ___________________
    5. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.
    • Receptor activates G protein 
    • Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP
  47. Cyclic AMP: 

    1. ___________________
    2.Receptor activates G protein 
    3. ___________________ 
    4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP
    5. ___________________
    • Hormone Binds receptor
    • G protein activates adenylate cyclase
    • Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.
  48. During cAMP, step 1, the hormone, acting as the _____, binds to its receptor in the plasma membrane.
    First messenger
  49. During cAMP, Hormone binding causes the receptor to change ____, allowing it to bind a nearby inactive _____.
    • Shape 
    • G protein
  50. During cAMP, the G protein is activated as the _____ bound to it is displaced by the high energy compound _______. The G protein behaves like a light switch: It is "___" when GDP is bound to it, and "___" when GTP is bound.
    • Guanosine diphosphate (GDP)
    • Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
    • Off
    • On
  51. During cAMP, step 3, the activated G protein binds to the effector enzyme _____.
    adenylate cyclase
  52. During cAMP, step 3, Some G proteins ___ and others (G^1)____ adenylate cyclase. Eventually, the GTP bound to the G protein is _____ to GDP and the G protein becomes _____ once again.
    • Stimulate 
    • Inhibit
    • Hydrolyze 
    • Inactive
  53. During cAMP, step 4, for as long as activated G^s is bound to it, adenylate cyclase generates . . .
    The second messenger cAMP from ATP.
  54. During cAMP, step 5, cAMP, which is free to diffuse throughout the cell, triggers a cascade of chemical reactions by activating _____.
    Protein kinases
  55. During cAMP, step 5, what is protein kinases?
    Enzymes that phosphorylate (add a phosphate group to) various proteins, many of which are other enzymes.
  56. The sequence of reactions set in motion by cAMP depends on _____, _____, and _____.
    • The type of target cell
    • The specific protein kinases it contains 
    • The substrates within that cell available for phosphorylation
  57. The action of cAMP persists only briefly because of the molecule is rapidly degraded by the intracellular enzyme ______.
  58. Like the cAMP signaling mechanism, the PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism involves a G protein (G^q) and a membrane-bound effector in this case an enzyme called ______.
    Phospholipase C
  59. In PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism, phospholipase C splits a plasma membrane phospholipid called ____. into two second messengers: _____ (DAG) and ____ (IP^3). DAP, like cAMP, activates a protein kinase enzyme, which triggers responses within the target cell. In addition, IP^3 releases Ca^2+ from intracellular storage sites. 
    • PIP^2 (phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate)
    • Diacylglycerol
    • Inositol triphosphate
  60. In PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism, the liberated Ca+ also takes on a second-messenger role, either by directly altering the activity of specific enzymes and channels or by binding to the intracellular regulatory protein _____. Once Ca+ binds to ____,it activates enzymes that amplify the cellular response.
    • Calmodulin 
    • Calmodulin
  61. Lipids, hormone-like, not true hormones because act as paracrines and autocrines

    What does this describe?
  62. Transport proteins (albumins and globulins)

    –steroids and thyroid hormone are hydrophobic and must bind to transport proteins for transport
    –____ hormone - hormone attached to transport protein, (half-life hours to weeks, protects from enzymes and kidney filtration)
    –only ____ hormone can leave capillary to reach target cell (half-life a few minutes)
    • bound
    • unbound
  63. During cAMP, 

    –Hormone receptor, G protein, and ____
    –Determine ____ levels of cAMP
    • effector enzyme
    • intracellular
  64. Hormones that act via ____ mechanisms

    –Epinephrine, ACTH, FSH, LH, Glucagon, PTH, TSH, Calcitonin
  65. Target cells form more receptors to a hormone when blood levels of the hormone rise

    What is it?
  66. What targets cells lose receptors in response to high hormone concentrations?
  67. One hormone may effect the affinity of other hormones

    T or F
  68. One hormone requires another to be fully effective
  69. –More than one hormone producing the same effect

    –Is amplified
  70. –hormones that have opposite actions as each other

    –May compete for receptors, use different metabolic pathways, cause down-regulation
  71. Hormonal Stimulus 

    1)The ______ sectrets hormones that 
    2)stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that 
    3)stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormone such as _____,_____, and ____)
    • Hypothalamus 
    • Thyroid gland
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Gonad
  72. Hypothalamus 

    Shaped like a flattened funnel, forms floor and walls of ____ventricle
    Regulates primitive functions from ____ balance to sex drive
    Regulates many functions carried out by ____ gland
    • 3rd
    • water
    • pituitary
  73. Posterior pituitary is part of the brain

    Downgrowth of _____
    Connected to hypothalamus via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal (hi”po-fiz’-e-al) tract
    A nerve bundle
    Runs through the infundibulum
  74. Supraopic neurons secrete
    Secrete antidiuretic (ADH) hormone
  75. Paraventricular nuclei secrete
    Secrete oxytocin (ox”si-to’sin)
  76. 1)Hypothalamic neurons synthesize ____ and _____.
    2)They are transported along the ______ tract to the posterior pituitary gland
    3)They are stored in the ______ in the pos. pituitary gland
    4)They are released into the blood when the hypothalamic neurons fire.
    • Oxytocin
    • ADH
    • Hypotalamic-hypophyseal
    • Axon terminals
  77. 1)When appropriately stimulated, hypothalamic neurons secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones into the ______.
    2.)Hypothalamic hormones travel through the ____ to the anterior pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.
    3)Anterior pituitary hormones are secreted into the ____.
    • primary capillary plexus.
    • portal veins
    • secondary capillary plexus.
  78. FSH
    –ovaries, stimulates development of eggs and follicles

    –testes, stimulates production of sperm
  79. LH
    –females, stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to secrete progesterone

    –males, stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone
  80. ACTH
    –regulates response to stress, effect on adrenal cortex and secretion of glucocorticoids
  81. PRL
    • female, milk synthesis
    • male,  LH sensitivity, thus  testosterone secretion
  82. ADH
    • targets kidneys to  water retention, reduce urine
    • also functions as neurotransmitter
  83. Oxytocin
    –labor contractions, lactation

    –possible role sperm transport, emotional bonding
  84. Growth Hormone

    Targets liver to produce somatomedins ­ _____ mitosis + cellular differentiation for tissue growth

    –protein synthesis
    mRNA translated, ­ DNA transciption for ­ mRNA production
    enhances amino acid transport into cells, ¯ catabolism

    Also, Increases cartilage formation and skeletal development
  85. Growth Hormone 

    –lipid metabolism
    • stimulates FFA and glycerol release, protein sparing
    • Incease fat breakdown and release
  86. Growth Hormone 

    –Carbohydrate metabolism
    • glucose sparing effect- glucose stored as glycogen is released
    • Called anti-insulin effect

    Increase blood glucose and other anti-insulin effects
  87. Growth Hormone 

    –Electrolyte balance
    promotes Na+, K+, Cl- retention, Ca+2 absorption
  88. Growth Hormone
  89. Diabetes Mellitus
    • –polyuria (excessive urine), polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger)
    • –hyperglycemia, glycosuria (glucose lost in urine), ketonuria (ketones in urine due to ketoacidosis)

    osmotic diuresis : blood glucose levels rise above transport maximum of kidney tubules, glucose remains in urine, osmolarity ­ and draws water into urine
Card Set
A&P 2 Endocrine System
Chpt 16