What is anatomy?
The study of the structure of the human body.
The study of body functions.
What are the branches of anatomy?
- 1. microscopic anatomy
- 2. gross anatomy
- 3. developmental anatomy
- 4. pathological anatomy
- 5. radiographic anatomy
What is microscopic anatomy and what structures does it include?
Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only by a microscope, the structures included are cells and cell parts; groups of cells; called tissue.
What is histology?
The study of tissues
What is cytology?
The study of cells.
What is gross anatomy?
The study of structures visible to the naked eye.
Types of gross anatomy...
- 1. regional anatomy
- 2. systemic anatomy
- 3. surface anatomy
Regional anatomy is...
All structures in a single body region
ex: abdomen or head are examined as a group
Systemic anatomy is...
All organs with related functions are studied together
- ex: when studying the muscular system you consider the muscles of the entire body.
Surface anatomy is...
The study of shapes and markings (called landmarks) on the surface of the body that reveals the underlying organs.
Developmental anatomy is...
traces structural changes occurring in the body throughout the lifetime
Which two branches of anatomy explore how body structures from, grow, and mature?
developmental anatomy and embryology
What is embryology?
The study of how body structures form and develop before birth.
What branches of anatomy are used primarily for medical diagnosis and scientific research?
- 1. pathological anatomy
- 2. radiographic anatomy
- 3. functional morphology
Pathological anatomy is...
it deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease.
Radiographic anatomy is...
the study of internal body structures by means of x-ray studies and other imaging techniques.
Functional morphology is...
it explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design.
What is the Hierarchy of Structural Organization?
- 1. chemical level
- 2. cellular level
- 3. tissue level
- 4. organ level
- 5. organ system
- 6. organismal level
At the chemical level...
- Atoms combine to form molecules (small and large)
- Molecules combine to form the macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids)
What are atoms?
they are the building blocks of matter
What are the four classes of macromolecules found in the body?
- 1. carbohydrates-sugar
- 2. lipids- fats
- 3. proteins- amino acids
- 4. nucleic acids- DNA & RNA
What are macromolecules considered in the cellular level?
they are the building blocks of the structures at the cellular level
How many cells make up the human body?
100 trillion, but 210 are distinct cell types
What is a cell?
It is the smallest living thing in the body
At the cellular level...
cells and their surroundings are made up of molecules.
For example, a phospholipid molecule is a structural component of the plasma membrane
At the cellular level; the cells and their functional subunits, called:
Macromolecules also contribute to he metabolic functions of the cells as an energy source via---------, as signaling molecules via ---------, and as catalyst through ------.
- lipids and proteins
- and enzymes
What is a tissue?
a group of cells that work together to perform a common function.
tissues consist of similar types of cells and associate extracellular material.
What are the four types of tissues that make up all the organs of the human body?
- 1. epithelial tissue (epithelium)
- 2. connective tissue
- 3. muscle tissue
- 4. nervous tissue
Epithelial tissue (epithelium)
covers the body surface and lines its cavities
supports the body and protects its organs
provides fast internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
At what level does extremely complex physiological processes occur?
at the organ level
What is an organ?
its a discrete structure made up of more than one tissue. Organs are functional centers that are responsible for an activity that no other organ can perform.
ex: Brain: control center of the CNS, resposible for behavior. Heart: for pumping blood
How many types of tissues does an organ have?
four; epithelium, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue
What makes up an organ system?
Organs that work closely together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system.
You can think of each organ in the body as a ----- -----, responsible for an activity that no other organ can perform.
"Functional Center" that are responsible for an activity.
an organ is a discrete structure made up of multiple tissues types.
Examples include blood vessels, the liver, brain and femur.
What is an organ system?
organs that work closely together to accomplish a common purpose
Organ system level...
an organ system is a unified group of organs and tissues that perform a specific function.
- Ex: Blood vessels; transport blood which carries O2, CO2, nutrients and wastes.
- The heart pumps blood.
What are some of the body's organ systems?
- integumentary system (skin)
- skeletal system
- muscular system
- nervous system
- endocrine system
- cardiovascular system
- lymphatic system
- immune system
- respiratory system
- digestive system
- urinary system
- and reproductive system
Which is the highest level of organization?
the organismal level is the highest level of organization, it is the result of all the simpler levels working in unison to sustain life.
the whole person is the most complex level of organization, the organismal level, resulting from the simpler levels working interdependently.
a person stands erect with feet flat on the ground, toes pointing forward, and eyes facing forward. The palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body.
refers to the body in anatomical position
are the names of specific body region/areas
make up the axis of the body, consist of the head, neck, and trunk
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body, above.
Away from the head end of toward the lower part of a structure of the body; below
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Farther from the origin of a body
Toward or at the body surface
Away from the body surface; more internal
The head is ------ to the abdomen.
The navel is ----- to the chin.
The breastbone is ------ to the spine.
The heart is ----- to the breastbone.
The heart is ----- to the arm.
The arms are ----- to the chest.
The collarbone is ----- between the breastbone and shoulder.
The elbow is ----- to the wrist.
The knee is ----- to the thigh.
The skin is ----- to the skeletal muscle.
The lungs are ---- to the skin.
Divides abdomen into four quadrants
superior to umbilical region
Hypogastric Region (pubic region)
inferior to umbilical region
Right and left iliac or inguinal Regions
lateral to the hypogastric region
Right and left lumbar region
lateral to umbilical region
Right and left hypochondriac regions
flank epigastric regino laterally
The axial portion of the body has two large cavities that provide protection to the organs within them, they are:
- the dorsal (posterior) body cavity
- the ventral (anterior) body cavity
What is the function of the dorsal body cavity?
protects the nervous system
What is the dorsal cavity subdivided into?
cranial cavity and the vertebral (spinal cavity) which are continuous with each other
What is contained within the cranial cavity?
the brain is enclosed within the skull
Wha is contained within the vertebral cavity?
the vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
Which cavity is more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities?
ventral body cavity
The organs contained within ventral body cavity such as the lungs, heart, intestines and kidney are called? They are an internal organ of an animal....
visceral organs or viscera
The ventral cavity has two main division, they are:
- 1. a superior thoracic cavity surrounded by the ribs and the muscles of the chest wall and
- 2. an inferior abdominopelvic cavity surrounded by the abdominal walls and pelvic girdle
Houses the heart and lungs and is separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm.
The thoracic cavity is subdivided into what?
into the 2 pleural cavities and the mediastinum
What does the the 2 pleural cavities consist of?
they each contain a lung, which lies on either side of the heart.
What is contained within the mediastinum?
the mediastinum contains all of the thoracic organs except the lungs.
What organs are located within the mediastinum?
- heart (pericardial cavity)
- thymus gland
- chest portion of the trachea
- lymph nodes
- and important nerves
How is the abdominalpelvic cavity divided?
It is divided into two parts; the superior abdominal cavity and the inferior pelvic cavity
What is contained within the superior abdominal cavity?
the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs
What is contained within the inferior pelvic cavity?
the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum.
T/F The abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity are continuous with each other, and are not separated by any muscular or membranous partition.
Many organs in the abdominalpelvic cavity are surrounded by:
a peritoneal cavity
The wall of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with a thin double layer membrane called:
serosa (serous membrane)
The part of the (serosa) membrane lining the cavity walls is called:
The part of the (serosa) membrane covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity is known as the:
Visceral serosa; which covers the visceral organs
What are the serous membranes called?
- serous pericardium
Effects of the serosa (serous membrane): parietal and visceral serosa:
- these membranes produce a thin lubricating fluid that allows the visceral organs to slide over one another or to rub against the cavity wall without friction.
- They also compartmentalize the various organ so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to others.
Name the serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering the organs.
Name the serosa lining the lungs.
Name the serosa lining the heart/
The mouth is called
Located within and posterior to the nose
Houses the eyes and presents them ina an anterior position
Contains bones(ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
Middle ear cavity
Joint cavities; located in a joint between neck vertebra
Lies vertically and divides body into anterior and posterior parts
Coronal (frontal) plane
Runs horizontally- divided body into superior and inferior parts
transverse plane (cross section)
Runs longitudinally and divided the body into right and left parts
Divided the body into equal parts
median (midsagittal) plane
All other sagittal planes
Cuts made diagonally
Examining small structures through a microscope is called?
Illuminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification)
Light microscopy (LM)
Uses beams of electrons (higher magnification)
Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM)
Heavy metal salt stain- deflects electrons in the beam to different extents; 3D
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)