Chapter 3

  1. Define listening and its five stages and describe the ways you can increase listening accuracy at each of these stages.
    According to our contemporary definition, listening is a collection of skills involving (1) attention and concentration (receiving), (2) learning (understanding), (3) memory (remembering), (4) critical thinking (evaluation, and (5) feedback (responding)
  2. Receiving
    Hearing (which is not the same as listening) begins and ends with the first stage of the listening process, receiving.
  3. Remembering
    Effective listening depends on remembering.
  4. Evaluating
    Evaluating consists of judging the messages you hear.
  5. Responding
    Responding occurs in two forms: (1) responses you make while the speaker is talking and (2) responses you make after the speaker has stopped talking. These responses are called Backchanneling cues-messages (words and gestures) that let the speaker know you`re paying attention, as when you nod in agreement or say, "I see" or "Uh-huh"
  6. Listening barriers
    • Describe the four major barriers to effective listening and Describe how you can improve effectiveness in your own listening
    • In addition to practicing the various skills for each stage of listening, consider some of the common barriers to listening.
  7. Distractions: Physical and Mental
    Physical barriers might include hearing impairment, a noisy environment, or loud music. Mental distractions too get in the way of focused listening.
  8. Biases and Prejudices
    In biased and prejudiced listening, you hear what the speaker is saying through stereotypes.
  9. Lack of Appropriate Focus
    Focusing on what a person is saying is necessary for effective listening-yet there are many influences that can lead you astray.
  10. Premature Judgment
    Perhaps the most obvious form of premature judgment is assuming you know what the speaker is going to say and that there`s no need to really listen.
  11. Four listening styles
    • Define the four styles of listening and explain how each may be used effectively.
    • Listening is situational (Brownell 2013). The way you listen should depend on the situation you are in.
  12. Empathic Listening
    If you`re going to understand what a person means and what a person is feeling, you need to listen with some degree of empathy (Rogers, 1970; Rogers & Farson, 1981)
  13. Polite Listening
    Politeness is often thought of as the exclusive function of the speaker, as solely and encoding or sending function.
  14. Critical Listening
    In many listening situations you`ll need to exercise critical evaluation or judgment. In Critical Listening, you think logically and dispassionately about, for example, the stories your friends tell you or the sales pitch of the car dealer.
  15. Active Listening
    One of the most important communication you can learn is that of active listening (Gordon, 1975).
  16. Functions of Active Listening:
    • Active Listening serves several important functions.
    • Perhaps most obvious is that active listening enables you to check understanding. Reflecting back perceived meanings to the speaker gives the speaker an opportunity to offer clarification and correct any misunderstandings. Second, through active listening you let the speaker know that you acknowledge and accept his orĀ her feelings.
    • Solution messages tell the person how he or she should do. The four types of messages that send solutions and that you`ll want to avoid in your active listening are (1) ordering messages, (2) warning and threating messages, (3) preaching and moralizing messages, and (4) advising messages. Third, active listening stimulates the speaker to explore his or her feelings and thoughts.
  17. Techniques of Active Listening. Three simple techniques may help you succeed in active listening
    • 1. Paraphrase the speaker`s meaning. Restating what you think the speaker means and feels in your own words can help you ensure understanding and shows your interest in the speaker.
    • 2. Express understanding of the speaker`s feelings. In addition to paraphrasing the content, echo the feelings the speaker expressed or implied.
    • 3. Ask questions. Asking questions strengthens your own understanding of the speaker`s thoughts and feelings and elicits additional information.
  18. Listening Differences: Culture and Gender
    Listening is difficult in part because of the inevitable differences in the communication systems between speakers and listeners
  19. Language and Speech
    Even when a speaker and a listener speak the same language, they speak it with different accents.
  20. Nonverbal Behaviors
    Speakers from different cultures have different display rules, cultural rules that govern which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate and which are inappropriate in a public setting.
  21. Feedback
    Members of some cultures give very direct and very honest feedback.
  22. Gender and Listening
    Men and woman learn different styles of listening, just as they learn different styles for using verbal and nonverbal messages.
  23. Rapport and Report Talk
    According to linguistic scholar and popular writer Deborah Tannen (1990) in her best-selling You Just Don`t Understand: Women and Men conversation, women seek to share feelings, build rapport, and establish closer relationships, and they use listening to achieve these ends.
  24. Listening cues
    Men and Women give different types of listening cues and, consequently show that they`re listening in different ways.
  25. Amount and Purposes of Listening
    Tannen (1990, 1994) argues that men listen less to women than women listen to men.
Card Set
Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Listening in Human Communication