Radiology1- Joints

  1. Contrast an enthesiophyte and an osteophyte.
    • enthesiophyte= bony projection associated with degeneration of a ligament
    • osteophyte= bony projection associated with cartilage degeneration in a joint
  2. What are causes of degenerative joint disease? (7)
    • osteoarthritis
    • primary or secondary (developmental vs acquired)
    • OCD, dysplasia, conformational abnormalities
    • trauma
    • infection
    • neoplasia
    • instability
  3. What are DJD radiographic findings? (8)
    • increased synovial mass
    • altered joint space width (be careful if non-weight bearing rads!)
    • decreased subchondral bone opacity OR increased subchondral bone opacity (sclerosis)
    • subchondral cyst formation (very late change, chronic)
    • changes of perichondral junction (osteophytes)
    • changes at the sites of soft tissue attachment (enthesiophytes)
    • mineralization of intra- and periarticular structures (joint mice)
    • changes in joint alignment (subluxation, luxation
  4. What are causes of increased synovial mass on radiographs with DJD?
    • effusion
    • proliferative synovium
    • [can't tell the difference just by rads]
  5. Why would there be decreased subchondral bone opacity with DJD?
    lysis or erosion of subchondral bone
  6. What is the normal alignment of the stifle with an intact cruciate ligament? (on radiograph)
    trochlear ridge of the tibia in alignment with the femoral condyles on lateral
  7. What are causes of aggressive primary arthropathies? (3)
    • infection**
    • neoplasia
    • erosive inflammatory
  8. What is a major cause of non-aggressive primary arhtropathy?
    non-erosive inflammatory
  9. What are radiographic signs of septic arthritis? (4)
    • subchondral bone lysis** (might not be immediately evident; cartilage might be completely destroyed and infection is eating away subchondral bone but it is not yet radiographically evident)
    • swelling
    • widened joint space (maybe joint space collapse...not usually)
    • degenerative changes
  10. What are the specific erosive polyarthropathies (2), and what are characteristics of these? (5)
    • rhematoid arthritis in dogs, feline erosive polyarthritis
    • multiple joints
    • immune mediated
    • swelling
    • subchondral cysts and lysis**
    • subluxation of joints
  11. What are the types of joint neoplasia? (2)
    • histiocytic sarcoma
    • synovial cell sarcoma
  12. What are radiographic characteristics of joint neoplasia?
    • soft tissue mass, often lobular/ irregular
    • osteolysis from joint surfacing and sometimes extending all the way to the metaphysis
  13. What are the non-erosive polyarthropathies (2), and what are radiographic characteristics? (3)
    • SLE, feline periosteal proliferative PA
    • multiple joints involved
    • immune-mediated
    • swelling**
    • subchondral bone looks fine, joint margins are clean- non-erosive
  14. What are classic radiographic signs of CCL rupture? (6)
    • increased soft tissue opacity around the joint (effusion); may efface the margin of the infra-patellar fat pad
    • enthesiophytes on base and apex of patella
    • osteophytes on cranial margin of femoral trochlear ridges
    • osteophytes in lateral and medial aspects of tibial plateau
    • +/- enthesiophytes on distal fabellae
    • +/- enthesiophytes at insertion of CCL
  15. What are classic radiographic signs of hip dysplasia? (6)
    • shallow acetabulum, covering <50% of femoral head
    • osteophytes on cranial and caudal margins of acetabular rim
    • flattening of the femoral head
    • osteophytes on margins of femoral head
    • sclerotic line of enthesiophytes on femoral neck, where joint capsule inserts
    • +/- thickening of femoral neck
  16. What are classic radiographic signs of elbow dysplasia/ DJD? (5)
    • [depends on cause of elbow dysplasia]
    • FMCP- if that's the cause
    • osteophytes on articular surfaces
    • subtrochlear notch sclerosis
    • osteophytes on non-articular surface of anconeal process
    • enthesiophytes on medial epicondyle
Card Set
Radiology1- Joints
vetmed radiology1