Into Soc 4

  1. All of the following are examples of voluntary associations EXCEPT the
    Federal Bureau of Investigation
  2. A sex ratio of 120 means that in a population there are
    120 males for every 100 females
  3. Industrialization is most likely to reduce the importance of which of the following functions of the family?
    Economic production
  4. Which of the following best describes the relationship between q and z on the scattergram above?
    A perfect negative correlation
  5. The process by which an individual learns how to live in his or her social surroundings is known as
  6. Which of the following can properly be considered norms?
    Laws, Folkways and Mores
  7. Which of the following theorists argued that class conflict was inevitable in a capitalistic society and would result in revolution?
    Karl Marx
  8. Which of the following relies most heavily on sampling methods?
    Survey research
  9. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the Chicago School of Sociology?
    Talcott Parsons was a proponent of the school.
  10. Which of the following allows human beings to adapt to diverse physical environments?
  11. All of the following are properties of primary groups EXCEPT
    They tend to be large in number.
  12. According to Émile Durkheim, a society that lacks clear-cut norms to govern aspirations and moral conduct is characterized by
  13. The process by which an immigrant or an ethnic minority is absorbed socially into a receiving society is called
  14. The term “sociology” was coined by its founder, the nineteenth-century positivist
    Auguste Comte
  15. According to Émile Durkheim, the more homogeneous a group the greater its
    mechanical solidarity
  16. Demographic patterns have clearly demonstrated that more males than females are born in
    virtually every known human society
  17. MaxWeber’s three dimensions of social stratification are which of the following?
    Status, class, power
  18. The term “SMSA” used in the United States census refers to a
    standard metropolitan statistical area
  19. In order for an occupation to be considered a profession by a sociologist, it must be an occupation that
    is based on abstract knowledge and a body of specialized information
  20. In the study of social class, a sociologist would be LEAST likely to focus on
  21. An example of a folkway in American society is
    eating a sandwich for lunch
  22. Socialization takes place
    throughout the life cycle
  23. A school system that teaches children of different ethnic groups in the children’s own language and about their own particular ethnic heritage illustrates a policy of
  24. MaxWeber linked the emergence of capitalism to the
    Calvinist doctrine of predestination
  25. The economy of the postindustrial United States is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
    increased job security due to globalization
  26. Which statement about political participation in the United States is true?
    Voter turnout in the United States is lower than in most European nations.
  27. Which of the following is best described as an organized sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, designed to support important values and to meet human needs?
    Social institution
  28. Most of the funding for public schools in the United States comes from
    local property taxes
  29. According to MaxWeber, authority derived from the understanding that individuals have clearly defined rights and duties to uphold and that they implement rules and procedures impersonally is
    rational-legal authority
  30. Raw materials are processed and converted into finished goods in which sector of the economy?
  31. In the United States, economic growth between 1985 and 2005 resulted in
    growth in the gap between the rich and poor
  32. Within the scientific perspective, which of the following are the most important sources of knowledge?
    Empiricism and reason
  33. Which of the following made up the largest number of immigrants to the United States in the 2000s?
  34. Compared to the United States population in general, Asian Americans have
    a higher level of formal educational achievement
  35. In the world’s economic system, which of the following is true about the relationship between high-income countries and low-income countries?
    High-income countries build manufacturing plants in low-income countries to obtain cheap labor.
  36. Sociological studies of gender socialization show that
    girls are less likely than boys to receive attention from teachers
  37. The increase in prejudice that sometimes resulted from court-ordered desegregation in public schools is a
    latent dysfunction of desegregation
  38. The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture is called
  39. In Gesellschaft, people are more likely than in Gemeinschaft to
    see others as a means of advancing their own individual goals
  40. Demographic transition theory explains population changes by
    linking population changes to technological development
  41. Which theory assumes that deviance occurs among individuals who are blocked from achieving socially approved goals by legitimate means?
    Merton’s strain theory
  42. Sandra is female, she is African American, and she is sixteen years of age. These three characteristics are examples of Sandra’s
    ascribed statuses
  43. Cooley called a person’s self-conception based on the responses of others
    the looking-glass self
  44. The philosopher Thomas Hobbes believed that social order developed out of the
    desire to escape a state of continuous social conflict
  45. MaxWeber’s principle of verstehen was meant to
    explain the subjective beliefs that motivate people to act
  46. According to sociological terminology, an analysis of the amount of violence in mass media, such as television shows, would be which of the following?
    Content analysis
  47. Which of the following is true of social norms for the structure of marriage?
    They have frequently held polygyny as the societal ideal, although this pattern was functionally available to and practiced primarily by the most wealthy and powerful.
  48. In the past 30 years, the infant mortality rate in the United States has
    declined among both African American people and Caucasian people, while remaining twice as high among African American people
  49. In the United States, semiskilled positions held primarily by women, such as waitperson, cashier, and receptionist, are known as which type of occupation?
  50. Tamara worked as a waitress for five years after high school before she went to college. After college, Tamara got a job as a sales representative for a pharmaceutical company. This best exemplifies which of the following types of mobility?
  51. The concept of “glass ceiling” affecting women in the workforce is best illustrated by which of the following?
    The barriers that limit career advancement for women
  52. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding patriarchy?
    It is a form of social organization in which males control most formal and informal power.
  53. Which of the following distinguishes a crime from a deviant act?
    The definition of the act as criminal by a political entity
  54. A collection of people who happen to be walking down the street at the same time but who have nothing else in common is known as
    an aggregate
  55. “This may sound really strange, but . . .” This statement is an example of
    a disclaimer
  56. Nathan wants to study the behavior of city residents as they travel on the subway to work every day. What type of research would be most appropriate for Nathan’s research project?
    Field research
  57. Which of the following is true of a dependent variable?
    It is influenced by another variable.
  58. Which of the following is an example of an informal positive sanction?
    Danisha receives a new car from her parents when she scores 2300 on the SAT®.
  59. In general, females perform better than males do on tests of
    verbal ability
  60. Ken works on an assembly line in a paper factory in the midwestern United States. He believes that if he works hard enough, he will become very wealthy. According to Karl Marx, Ken’s belief reflects which of the following?
    False consciousness
  61. Which of the following terms refers to something that has an unexpected detrimental effect on social institutions or society?
    Latent dysfunction
  62. Which of the following terms refers to a philosophical system under which knowledge ofthe world and human behavior is derived from scientific observation in search of universal laws?
  63. Mrs. Jones has a parent-teacher meeting scheduled at the school where she teaches. The meeting is scheduled at the same time as her daughter’s piano recital. Mrs. Jones will have to decide how to juggle the contradictory expectations of teacher and parent. This situation is referred to as
    role conflict
  64. Which of the following would most likely be an agent of involuntary resocialization?
    A total institution
  65. All of the following characteristics are commonly attributed to postmodern culture EXCEPT
    adherence to traditional gender roles
  66. Joe is on trial for selling drugs. He looks very different from when he was arrested. He has washed, cut, and combed his hair, and is wearing a clean, conservative suit and tie at the trial. Joe is engaged in
    impression management
  67. A characteristic of a triad is that it
    is prone to coalition formation
  68. Laura is conducting an experiment to determine the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. She gives half of her subjects a caffeinated beverage to drink. These subjects are the
    experimental group
  69. The claim that the division of labor based on gender has survived because it is beneficial and efficient for human living is an example of
    structural functionalist
  70. Communities that form adjacent to central cities are called
  71. According to world-systems theory, the global system is primarily
  72. Some sociologists view the family as an economic unit that contributes to social injustice because it is the basis for transferring power, property, and privilege from one generation to the next. Which of the following perspectives best describes that view?
  73. Which of the following types of societies is least differentiated?
    Hunting and gathering
  74. Which of the following sociologists asserted that race is the most serious problem in the United States?
    W. E. B. Du Bois
  75. The early Chicago School researchers found that even though immigration changed the racial and ethnic composition of some areas of the city over time, the rates of crime in those areas remained relatively high. Which of the following interpretations of this finding is most consistent with the Chicago School’s social disorganization perspective?
    Neighborhood social institutions were ineffective at preventing crime.
  76. Societies that are postindustrial are distinguished from industrial ones by
    the predominance of knowledge-based service industries
  77. Two basic premises that underlie capitalism are that
    goods are produced for profit, and the free market determines what is produced and at what price
  78. Approximately what percent of the people in the United States live in metropolitan areas?
  79. Which of the following best describes what sociologists of education mean when they refer to the hidden curriculum?
    The unintended consequences of schooling
  80. A sociologist of religion who studies secularization is interested in which of the following?
    A society that changes from closely identifying with religious values to closely identifying with nonreligious values
  81. The practice in which a woman is married to two or more men at the same time is known as
  82. Which of the following theorists is most associated with structural-functionalism?
    Émile Durkheim
  83. Impression management is exhibited by a college student who
    cleans the dorm room in preparation for Parent’s Weekend
  84. As a nurse, Rex works to respect and fulfill the different values, beliefs, and behaviors of his patients. Which of the following is Rex practicing?
    Cultural competence
  85. Which of the following stages of racial-ethnic relations is best exemplified by the 2008 election of President Barack Obama?
  86. Which of the following approaches to stratification is most likely to suggest that, as a society becomes more stratified, it prevents the talents of those at the bottom from being known or used and thus potentially fails to benefit from the contributions of all its members?
  87. A society in which women have more wealth, privilege, and political power than men have is said to be experiencing which of the following?
    Gender stratification
  88. An advertisement for men’s cologne depicts a woman as a pair of legs. This is an example of
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Into Soc 4
Into Soc 4