Chp 3A Autonomic system

  1. The peripheral nervous system consists of the
    somatic nervous system (voluntary) and the autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
  2. The autonomic nervous system consists of the
    sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  3. Neurons
    nerve cells that transmit messages throughout the body
  4. Neurons consist of
    • cell body
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • axon terminal
  5. Where are the located in the dendrites
  6. What are located in the axon terminal
    The vesicles
  7. What is the synapse
    the “junction” of two neurons where they communicate with each other or with target organs
  8. Another word for the ganglion is the
    synaptic cleft
  9. What is the Preganglionic neuron
    –Neuron located before the synaptic cleft
  10. What is the Postganglionic neuron
    –Neuron located after the synaptic cleft
  11. The sympathetic nervous system is sometimes called the _______ response
    fight or flight
  12. The parasympathetic nervous system is sometimes called the _______ response
    rest and digest
  13. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions have ________ carrying message to effectors
    two sets of motor nerves
  14. Motor neurons from the ANS stimulate what 3 different effectors
    • Smooth muscle in many places
    • Cardiac muscle 
    • Glands
  15. Preganglionic nerve go from the _____ to the ______
    CNS to the ganglion
  16. Postganglionic nerve go from the _____ to the ______
    ganglion to the effector
  17. In the parasympathetic division, long preganglionic neurons arise in Cranial Nerves-________ in the brain and from the _______of the spinal cord
    • III, VII, IX, X
    • sacral region
  18. Approx. 75% of long preganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division originate from the _______ nerve
    Vagus X
  19. In the sympathetic division, the short preganglionic neurons originate in the ________ of the spinal cord
    thoraco-lumbar portion
  20. What are neurotransmitters and what are the purpose
    • Chemical substances made in the neurons and stored in the vesicles
    • The purpose of the neurotransmitter is to carry nerve impulses (action potentials) across the synapse
  21. What are receptors
    structures, usually proteins that receive the neurotransmitters
  22. Receptors are located on the ______ and ____, ________ and ______
    • Dendrites of postganglionic neurons
    • On/in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  23. What are the two ways that excess neurotransmitters are removed
    • enzymes located in the synapse break down the chemicals OR
    • the axon terminal will reabsorb excess back into the neuron cell
  24. Most organs of the body are innervated by neurons of both the
    sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
  25. The only organs not innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic are the  ________ which are all ______
    • sweat glands, smooth muscles of the hair follicles, the adrenal medulla and blood vessels of the skin
    • sympathetic
  26. All postganglionic parasympathetic nerves are _______ and secrete ______
    • cholinergic
    • secrete Ach (acetylcholine)
  27. All preganglionic nerves are
    cholinergic fibers (secrete Ach).
  28. Most postganglionic sympathetic nerves are _______ and secrete ________
    • adrenergic
    • secrete NE (norepinephrine)
  29. Certain postganglionic sympathetic nerves such as sweat glands are ______ and secrete _______
    • cholinergic
    • secrete Ach (acetylcholine)
  30. Adrenal medulla secretes ______ and _____
    Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
  31. Cholinergic receptors receive
    Ach (acetylcholine)
  32. What are the two types of cholinergic receptors
    nicotinic and muscarinic
  33. Nicotinic receptors are at the synapse of
    the preganglionic nerve and ganglion
  34. Muscarinic receptors are found on all effectors of
    parasympathetic postganglionic (and on a few of the sympathetics – ex. sweat glands
  35. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors are located in the
    skeletal muscle (somatic nervous system)
  36. Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptors are located in _________ such as _________
    • all the tissue innervated by parasympathetic postganglionic nerves
    • the cardiac conduction system, exocrine glands, smooth muscle including eyes, gut, genitals, lungs.
  37. Adrenegic receptors receive _________ and ________ and are found on the effectors of _______
    • NE and EPI
    • most sympathetic postganglionic nerves
  38. What are the two Adrenergic receptors referred to as
    • alpha (α) receptors
    • beta (β)-receptors
  39. What are the two subtypes of alpha receptors
    Alpha 1 and Alpha 2
  40. Where are Alpha 1 receptors located
    postganglionic smooth muscle (blood vessels, genitourinary system, sweat glands, eyes, intestine
  41. What are alpha 1 receptors responsible for ________ and especially important in _______
    • contraction of smooth muscle
    • raising blood pressure, decreasing urinary outflow
  42. Alpha2 (α2) are called ________ and are located on __________
    • autoreceptors
    • postganglionic neurons that release NE
  43. Alpha2 (α2) receptors serve an _________ function which _______ the sympathetic response
    • inhibitory negative feedback
    • turns off
  44. Activation of α2-receptors causes ________, which decreases the _______
    • inhibition of NE release
    • secretion of insulin, decreases blood pressure, and decreases eye secretion
  45. What are the subtypes of beta receptors
    • β1
    • β2
    • β3
  46. Where are beta 1 receptors found and what is the function
    • Found on/in heart tissue
    • Increase heart rate and contractility
  47. Where are beta 2 receptors found and what is the function
    • –Found on/in the smooth muscle of bronchioles, skeletal muscle, and blood vessels supplying the heart and kidneys.
    • Relaxes these muscles
  48. Where are beta 3 receptors found and what is the function
    • –Found on/in fat tissue
    • breakdown of lipids
  49. What is serotonin and where is it produced
    • Another type of neurotransmitter
    • Produced primarily by platelets, cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and neurons
  50. Serotonin’s physiologic effects include
    platelet aggregation, stimulation of gastrointestinal motility, vasoconstriction, and controlling sleep, pain, behavior, and emotions (depression).
Card Set
Chp 3A Autonomic system
Chp 3A Autonomic system