AP Psych Midterm #1

  1. Define Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. Structuralism
    Wilhelm Wundt, believed that the mind was made up of sections and in order to study them they must be thought of objectively
  3. Father of Psychology
    Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Introspection
    Wundt asked his subjects to report on their reactions to stimuli. Objective not subjective.
  5. Functionalism
    How conscious mind is related to behavior and past experiences
  6. Stream of consciousness
    no filter, the initial reaction to something
  7. Gestalt Psychology
    Look at the mind as a whole rather than pieces
  8. Psychoanalysis
    Freud - illness is because of conflict in the unconscious mind. Childhood experience important (sex w/ parents)
  9. Psychodynamic Psychology
    Neo-Freudians, focus on current rather than past
  10. Behavioralism
    • Observable and recordable
    • Reward/Punishment
  11. Humanism
    • people are innately good
    • self esteem and free will
  12. Cognitive Psychology
    • Humans = computers
    • thinking and memory - how info is gathered and stored
  13. Sociocultural Perspective
    How culture and social interactions influence how people behave, feel, and think
  14. Biological Perspective
    how structure of the brain and NS influence behavior
  15. Psychiatry
    medicine that tries to counteract issues in the body
  16. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Influenced by Darwin
    • Explained mental strategies and traits by examining changes in behavior over time
  17. Case Studies
    One individual is studies in depth
  18. Advantages of case studies
    • Very detailed descriptions
    • Examine rare scenarios that you could not ethically create
  19. Disadvantages of Case Studies
    • Limited numbers of participants
    • Incorrect information - open to bias
  20. Naturalistic Observations
    observations w/o interfering to observe natural behavior
  21. Advantages of Naturalistic Observations
    • No subject bias
    • Accurate research
    • free
  22. Disadvantages of Naturalistic Observations
    • Hard to keep hidden
    • no control
  23. Laboratory Observation
    controlled stimulation of natural or artificial setting
  24. Advantages of Laboratory Observations
    • Situation easily manipulated
    • Data easily recorded
  25. Disadvantages of Laboratory Observations
    People know they are being watched - subject bias
  26. Surveys
    self report - ? asked to a large population
  27. Advantages of Surveys
    • Verifiable data
    • Uniform questions/data
    • Annoymous
  28. Disadvantages of Surveys
    • People may lie
    • Subject/ Participant bias
  29. Cross-Sectional Studies
    People of different ages are examined at the same time
  30. Advantages of Cross-Sectional Studies
    • less money
    • instant results
  31. Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional Studies
    Not totally accurate bc the people are not the same
  32. Longitudinal Studies
    a group of people is observed over a long period of time
  33. Advantages of Longitudinal Studies
    very accurate
  34. Disadvantages of Longitudinal Studies
    • expensive
    • need a big sample group to accommodate for people dropping out
  35. Basic Research
    • Database of what we know
    • Statistics with no info attached
  36. Applied Research
    • Seeks to answer a specific question
    • Usually has a practical application
  37. Illusionary Correlation
    • A perceived relationship between variables that may not exist
    • Superstitions
  38. Hindsight bias
    the tendency to think that you could have guessed the outcome when you already know what happens
  39. Components of an experiment
    • Control Conditions- Experimental/ Control groups
    • Experimental Variables- independent/dependent
    • Random sample/ Random assignment
  40. The experimental group get...
    the real "treatment"
  41. The control group get..
    the placebo or no treatment
  42. Independent Variable
    what we manipulate
  43. Dependent variable
    reaction, what you are measuring
  44. Single-blind study
    researcher knows who is in the control group but participants do not
  45. Double-blind study
    neither the researcher nor the participants know who is in the control or experimental groups
  46. Placebo
    "fake" drug
  47. Placebo effect
    when the brain acts as if it has recieved the treatment when it hasn't
  48. Measure of central tendency/variance
    • Mean - average
    • Median - Middle #
    • Mode - most occuring
    • Range - highes # minus lowest #
  49. APA ethical guidelines for conducting research
    • Must obtain informed consent - agreement after learning purpose and risks of the study
    • If deception was used - debrief
Card Set
AP Psych Midterm #1
AP Psych Midterm Review